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Volume 9, Issue 3, 2018 (in print)

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Research articles

M. Yosri, M.Ali, F. Stanco, K. Talaat

Restoration of Silver Gelatin Prints in the Digital Era: An Innovative Approach

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 375-388

One of the most common physical damage in silver gelatin prints is losses which occurs due to many deterioration factors (i.e. rodent attack, improper handling, fire, etc.). Conventionally, conservators compensated for the losses by making paper infills. While this method improves the physical structure of the treated print, it creates an unacceptable appearance due to the large contrast between the tone of the original photograph and the blank paper. Manual retouching of the missing part does not provide a better solution either, since it is achieved using a different medium (i.e. watercolors, ink washes, cont� crayons, pastels, and graphite). Many conservators are now aware of the advantages of digital restoration in treating old photographs. Hence, the importance of this study, which focuses mainly on modifying conventional methods used to treat losses by combining it with a digital restoration technique. The concept of this idea is solely based on the authors� vision. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed novel technique. Experiments were carried out on two old photographs of no significant value. Both photographs suffered from losses, particularly around the edges. Missing parts were digitally restored using Adobe Photoshop Software. Restored image data was then printed on Japanese paper using two types of printers: inkjet and laser. Samples or each printing process was exposed to artificial aging at a temperature of 80� and 65% relative humidity for a period of 120 hours to study the long-term efficacy of the proposed technique; as well as the effects it has on silver gelatin prints. Several examination and analysis methods were carried out for technique evaluation including: visual inspection, scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDX unit, attenuated total Reflectance Fourier transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR), colorimetric measurements, pH value measurement, and the Oddy test. Based on obtained results, laser printing is much more stable compared to inkjet printing; and therefore, it is considered the best option for this technique. All in all, one can conclude that the proposed technique is a very promising technique which can be efficiently used to restore losses in damaged photographic prints with slight effects on the original photograph.

Keywords: Silver gelatin prints; Losses; Infills; Digital restoration; Inkjet printing; Laser printing; Japanese paper

M. Ghorbani, K. Samanian, M. Afsharpuor

Mechanical Properties of Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibers Bio-Composite as a Long-Lasting Coating on the Paper Works

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 389-400
One of the most important issues for treatment of paper works is use of long-lasting (endurable) materials. In this study, Mechanical properties of Bacterial cellulose Nanofibers (BCN) for preservation of paper works are investigated. For this purpose, Suspension of BCN in Klucel-G polymeric matrix with doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 Wt% of dry matter were prepared and were coated on the pure cellulose paper (filter paper) by hydro-soluble casting method, and then tensile strength (TS) and folding endurance (FE) mechanical tests were performed. Also, in order to evaluate durability properties (long-lasting) of the cellulose fiber bio-nanocomposite, accelerated aging test was conducted in moist heat conditions. After performing mechanical test, obtained results were investigated and it was observed that the presence of this nanofibers in Klucel-G matrix, although lowers the initial mechanical properties (before aging), but increases durability of bio-nanocomposite compared to pure Klucel-G polymer matrix, and hence, as protective coatings, results in prevention of early aging. As a result, this prepared nanocomposite would have applications as a new reinforcing and endurable polymeric coating for preservation of paper works and prevention from further loss of their strength, and also there would be less need for retreatment.

Keywords: Preservation; Paper; Cellulose nanofiber; Mechanical characteristic; Endurable coating

M. Vagnini, M. Malagodi, F. Gabrieli, M. Azzarelli, F. Nucera, A. Daveri

An Integrated and Analytical Approach to Study of Mural Paintings: The Case of 'Lo Spagna' in Spoleto

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 401-412
The present work shows the advantages of a multi-analytical methodology based on non-invasive and micro-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the study of wall paintings located in San Giacomo�s church in Spoleto (Italy). The cycle of these mural paintings was realized by Giovanni di Pietro named Lo Spagna and his collaborators between 1526 and 1530. This study was focused on the characterization of pigments, in particular the blue ones, binders and degradation products to define the conservation state of these mural paintings and localize the repaints. Portable reflection infrared spectroscopy allowed us to identify the areas to be sampled in order to perform deeper analyses by scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

Keywords: Agroforestry; Biodiversity; Conservation; Livelihood; Structure.

A.C.A. Da Costa, F.D.N. Correa, G.D.S. Sant'anna, O. Hannesch, G.B. Tonietto, J.M.D.O. Godoy, R.D.A. Goncalves, M.T.S. Lutterbach

Iron-Gall Ink Studies on Acid and Alkaline Papers and their Relation to Cellulose Microbiological Degradation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 413-428
This paper describes the effect of various iron-gall inks on acid and alkaline papers and their relation to biodeterioration. Different types of papers were used in the present study, where several tests were performed: spot-tests for lignin and starch detection, chemical digestion to quantify total iron content, desorption studies to remove iron from the papers, followed by accelerated artificial aging, scanning electron microscopic studies and biodeterioration tests. Results indicated that lignin was only detected on acid papers, while starch was detected both on acid and alkaline papers. Treatment with calcium phytate proved to be an efficient process to remove excess iron from the inks. Scanning electron microscopic images showed distinct surface spreading of inks on the papers, depending on the iron content. Finally, in the absence of any other carbon source, papers strips containing iron-gall inks proved to be amenable to biodeterioration, indicating that chemical and biochemical deterioration simultaneously occur.

Keywords: Acid papers; Alkaline papers; Scanning electron microscopy; Biodeterioration; Iron content

S. Abdelaal

New Approach for the Study of Wall Paintings in Abu El Leaf Monastery, Fayoum Oasis, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 429-438
The Abu El Leaf Monastery, also known as Deir Abu Lifa, is considered one of the most important and famous monasteries in Fayoum Oasis, Egypt. It is located about two kilometers north of Quasr Al-Sagha Palace and about thirteen kilometers from Lake Qarun,one hundred kilometers from the capital of Egypt. [1-3].The Abu El Leaf Monastery was mentioned and founded by St. Panoukhius about 687 A.D.. Dir Abu El Leaf monastery was used almost from seventh to ninth centuries. It was seen as a safe haven for Christians seeking safety from religious persecution [4-5]. The monastery is quite rudimentary, its entrance is cut into the mountain and consists of small caves carved into cliff sides that can be difficult to reach. It has seven rooms containing some wall paintings and structures painted with some remains of pigments. Here we reported the investigations and analyses of the materials and techniques of the wall paintings in The Abu El Leaf Monastery using analytical techniques such as: Polarized light microscopy (PLM), X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM�EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Earth materials such as iron oxides based on hematite and goethite were the main findings, black carbon was also identified. The analyses of samples from different locations of The Abu El Leaf Monastery with XRD analysis indicated the presence of calcite, anhydrite, gypsum in the ground layer,and calcite in the plaster one. The pigments were identified by close visual investigation which showed that the paint layer was a very thin one, and that some parts were in very bad conditions such as some missing parts and some fallen others. Arabic Gum as organic binding medium suggests that tempera technique was used in The Abu El Leaf Monastery in Fayoum Oases.

Keywords: FWall paintings; Analysis; Conservation; Investigation; Pigments; Coptic; Monastery; Egypt.

N.H.N. Raikhan, M.S.A. Nur Nadila, A.R. Khairul Izwan

Identification of Species and Prevention of Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) on Marine Structure

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 439-450
Accelerated Low-Water Corrosion (ALWC) leads to degradation of maritime steel structure and was grouped as one of microbial induced corrosion (MIC) type. This study was performed to isolate, identify, and characterized the growth of the microbes that has induced ALWC in order to decide for the best treatment using understanding of its potential EPS through biofilm formation. The isolation was done by using rust of the corrode metals collected from the steel structures and harbor walls which was exposed to the sea tides at the Port Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia. The rust collected was spread on Seawater Agar medium. Growth of five different species was recorded after 72 hours. The pure colonies were stained for Gram tests and were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ochrobactrum anthropic, Pseudomonas luteola, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Burkholderia cepacia using the APi KIT. The formation of the biofilm was studied to confirm the consortia-like-activity in the potential of causing the corrosion. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR) of the EPS from consortia biofilm has revealed 3 types of EPS namely EPS1, EPS2 and EPS3 with all three contain different amount of microbiomolecules such as peptides, carbohydrates and lipids in different ratio. The data proposed a very strong environment and interrelation between the microbiomolecules of the biofilm formation; suggesting a strong biofilm activity was taking place at the maritime structure. Understanding the EPS and biofilm dynamics of the 5 species will assist in the design of engineered anti-corrosion formulation for the ALWC in the related marine structures. Addition of 10% of nitrifying bacteria has proven to rupture EPS1, EPS2 and EPS3 with more than 50% lost in the total concentration of peptide, carbohydrates and lipids. This result indicated that microbial based techniques can be further studied for the purposes of corrosion prevention.

Keywords: Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC); Mechanisms; Bacterial growth; Induced microbial corrosion (MIC)

A. Kanth, M. Singh, S.C. Pandey

Optimizing the Rigidity of Gellan and Agar Gels for Cleaning Sensitive Acrylic Emulsion Painted Surfaces

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 451-462

This paper is based on the explorative study aimed at furthering the understanding of cleaning of acrylic emulsion painted surfaces and evaluating the effectiveness of gel cleaning with rigid gels without affecting the original paint layer. In the present study, the gellan and agar gelling materials were exploited for cleaning acrylic emulsion painted surfaces by optimizing their rheological properties using two application methodologies. The gellan and agar gels were used on soiled and unsoiled acrylic painted surfaces and microphotographed at 50x magnification using Dinolite digital microscope under normal, raking and ultraviolet fluorescence light. The experimental results have demonstrated better contact, no loss of water and fair cleaning results for gellan gel as compared to agar. The effectiveness of cleaning operation was also observed using ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDX in the present study. The results can be extended for cleaning of other sensitive painted surfaces.

Keywords: Acrylic paint; Cadmium; Cleaning; Gellan; Agar; Swelling

I.A.M.S. Wake, T.R. Soeprobowati, J. Jumari

Potential Vegetation in Supporting Conservation of Komodo Dragons in Ontoloe Island Flores Indonesia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 463-474
Potential vegetation in a small island ecologically plays an important role towards life sustainability of wild animals in the island. To find out the compositions, structures, and benefits of vegetation in forest ecosystem of small islands, a vegetation analysis was needed. The result of analysis was beneficial, helping to find out the condition of forest community balance, as well as to explain the interactions inside and between species. Vegetation observation was needed in Utilization and Protection block in Ontoloe Island, from littoral to terrestrial until the center of the island. A combination of Judgemental and Systematic Random Sampling was applied to determine the research sites in 2 blocks. In the Utilization block, 3 sites were identified, while in the Protection block, other 4 sites were determined. The distance of each site was 100 meters. In every site, there were 3 replicas at a distance of 50 meters. The vegetation data obtained was analyzed the Importance Value Index (IVI). The result of the research based of IVI obtained showed that Leucaena leucocephala dominated the tree, pole, and stake levels, Imperata cylindrica dominated in seddling level, whereas Rhizphora mucronata dominated the littoral area. The domination of invasive species of Leucaena leucocephala and Imperata cylindrica has threatened and reduced the vegetation diversity in Ontoloe Island. Biological controlling both 2 species could be used by introducing ruminant animals such as timor deer (Cervus timorensis), which in turn would conserve the ancient Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912) in Ontoloe Island, by providing enough feeds of Timor deer for komodo.

Keywords: Vegetation analysis; Ontoloe Island; Flores small islands; Komodo; Conservation; Timor deer.

G. Voncina, P. Chachula, M. Krobicki, M. Wawrzczak

Assessment of Environmental and Cultural Values of Jarmuta Hill In Szczawnica (Polish Carpathians)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 475-500
The aim of this article is to present the history and the current condition of Jarmuta Hill, situated in Szczawnica (Ma?e Pieniny Range, Western Carpathians in southern Poland) in relation to its environmental and cultural values. Authors have presented the hill on the background of Pieniny region as an intricate object where cultural heritage intertwines with natural values. It is also an important testimony to the biological and geological structure, where cultural values are of great significance, as traces of human activity date back to medieval times.

Keywords: Fungi; Bryophytes; Plants; Andesite; Nature protection; Biodiversity

M. Salehnia, B. Hayati, M. Molaei

Modeling Heterogeneous Preferences of Lake Urmia Basin Residents Concerned with its Restoration: An Application of Scale-Adjusted Multilevel Latent Class Model

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 501-512
One of the major challenges in the field of environmental valuation, is discovering the diversity of preferences and sensitivities that exist in the communities. During last years, environmental situation of Lake Urmia with all its geological, economic, social, water resources, climate and other aspects, has changed and followed a downward trend. Lake Urmia, as a public good, needs public contribution to prevent further deterioration. The success of restoration strategies is largely dependent on its acceptance by the beneficiaries and level of their participation. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a choice experiment for investigating public heterogeneous preferences on the non-market economic benefits of Lake Urmia restoration. A scale-adjusted multilevel latent class model is applied and a model with three latent classes at individual level, two classes at group level and two scale classes was selected as the preferred model. According to our results, most people who live geographically closer to Lake Urmia, belong to the same grand class. There were signs of homogeneity for all members of this grand class, while for other respondents, considerable heterogeneity could be observed. We have evidence from our results that individuals' characteristics, location and response certainty may provide explanations for heterogeneity.

Keywords: Choice experiment; Heterogeneity; Scale-adjusted multilevel latent class model; Lake Urmia

M.S.H. Mondal

Risk Factors Associated with Destruction of Sundarbans Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh: A Review from Climate Change Perspective

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 513-522
Sundarbans mangrove forest is the largest continuous mangrove track of the world which is shared by Bangladesh and India. The Sundarbans reserved forest of Bangladesh constitutes around 51% of the country's protected area and more than 3 million people depend on its resources. But the forest is under threats by anthropogenic interventions and climate change. The objective of this paper is to synthesize published works on the impact of climate change on Sundarbans. This paper is based on the desktop review of relevant literature focused on the impact of climate change on Sundarbans. Snowball sampling method was used to select relevant literature. This article conceptualizes from the spatial and temporal point of view. Along with the anthropogenic pressure, climate change has sped up the annihilation of Sundarbans though increasing level of salinity, decreasing freshwater supply, irregular rainfall and sea level rise. The frequency and severity of landfalls of cyclonic storms over the coastal zones increased in the last couple of decades. Projection suggests that one-meter rise in sea level is enough to make Sundarbans disappear from the map of Bangladesh. Comprehensive conservation measures need be taken at the local, regional, national and international level to protect the world's largest mangrove forest.

Keywords: Sundarbans reserved forest; impact of climate change; sea level rise; Bangladesh.

D. Mansir, N. Kasim, I.S. Mat Radzuan

An Exploration of Disaster Risk to Cultural Heritage Assets: Towards Effective Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 523-536
Owning to the losses incurred from the occurrence of certain events at Cultural Heritage Sites (CHS's), conservation of its Cultural Heritage (CH) assets is reported to be threatened. The losses while qualifying for disasters to an affected CHS have necessitated proactive measures in the conservation of CH assets (individual and collective) aimed at reducing the risks of their exposure to eventual disasters. Foremost in such measures is the assessment of Disaster Risks (DR) whereby good practice (assessment of DR) conceptualises it (DR) to being a collective interplay of four variables namely: hazards, vulnerability; capacity and exposure. While deeper insights to the manifestation of each variable is deemed to be gained through a technique that investigates each variable in a multi-level approach, researches in the CH domain are yet to fully apply such approach (particularly to all the variables). Therefore, this research examined the four DR variables with a view to explore their multi-level manifestations in the domain of CH conservation. With the aid of a structured questionnaire and by means of conducting a survey, data was collected from 204 respondents at The Historic Commercial and Residential Zone (Old Quarter) of the Core Zone of Malacca CHS in Malaysia. Using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0, a 5-Step Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was carried out to analyse the inputted data. The achievement of certain threshold requirements by the results of this research indicates the fulfilment of some objectives of EFA. For instance, the reduction of manifest items is evident from the 47 manifest items having factor loadings ? 0.6 as against the total of 58 manifest items initially used in the study. Additionally, while the 47 manifest items for all 10 factors retained fulfilled convergent validity (loadings of manifest items ? 0.6), the loadings for the rotation of all 10 factors fulfilled discriminant validity (loading ? 0.3). These 10 factors retained spread across the four DR variables as follows: hazards (natural and human induced); vulnerability (human, material and management-based); capacity (human, material and management-based); and exposure (heritage values and community assets). The EFA technique used in this research has enabled the multi-levelling of each variable within the sphere of variable-to-factor and then factor-to-manifest item. The implication of the approach to multi-levelling of variables is for gaining deeper insights of DR to CHS conservation. However, it is worthy stating that the manifest items used in this study are bound to vary both within and across CHS's, thus, further studies could embark on a conceptual framework for the assessment of DR that could apply to specific contexts of DR towards the effective conservation of CHS's and its CH assets therein.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage Assets; Cultural Heritage Sites; Disaster Risk; Exploratory Factor Analysis; Manifest item; Variable.

S. Khetwani, R.B. Singh

Groundwater Dynamics In Marathwada Region: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis For Sustainable Groundwater Resource Management

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 537-548
Groundwater resource, especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics is highly vulnerable to climate change and increased human needs. The rising groundwater overdraft is a big challenge for ecological and socio-economic wellbeing of the earth. This study investigates the spatio-temporal patterns of groundwater overdraft and ongoing practices for water conservation in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra state in India. The GIS technique has been used for mapping spatio-temporal variability of groundwater overdraft in the region. The region has seen the spatial shift and expansion of groundwater overdraft from northern Marathwada region towards southern Marathwada region, over the sub-districts where the groundwater overdraft was not visible between the years 2001-2005. The water scarcity of the region has attracted the attention of masses and various stakeholders of the society which further gave way to the community based water resource management in the region.

Keywords: Marathwada region; Groundwater recharge; Groundwater overdraft; Community; Water conservation; Sustainable development

A.Balazsi, F. Pacurar, A.Mihu-Pintilie, W. Konold

How do Public Institutions on Nature Conservation and Agriculture Contribute to the Conservation of Species-rich Hay Meadows?

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 549-564
In recent decades, to the conservation of species-rich hay meadows throughout Europe has been given major attention. Yet, those habitats are at risk mainly due to intensification or abandonment, even in the countries where extensive traditional farming still exists. The member states still face difficulties on different levels when implementing EU policies. In this paper we (i) compare the implementation of EU conservation policies, (ii) analyse the gap between scientific knowledge and knowledge of public administration and (iii) follow the collaboration between institutions for nature conservation and for agriculture in the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg and Romania. We applied a comparative case study design and methods, analysing five aspects for each case: (1) public administration structure, (2) management of protected areas, (3) monitoring of habitats and species, (4) reward systems and (5) stakeholders' awareness. The results demonstrate that even though the structure of public administration in Germany enables multi-level governance, a functional system itself seems insufficient to assure the favourable conservation status of species-rich hay meadows. In Romania, organizational changes may be needed in the ministerial structures that are responsible for nature conservation and agriculture in order to increase institutional stability and capacity. In both cases, a conservation or agricultural approach to species-rich hay meadows in terms of formal institutional understanding (legislation) cannot cover the complexity of those semi-natural systems; thus it is suggested that there needs to be some mechanism for connecting social-ecological and cultural dimensions.

Keywords: Species-rich; Hay meadows; Nature conservation policy; Management plans; Agri-environment; Public administration.

C.R. Deb, Z.P. Kikon

Distribution Prediction Model of an Over Exploited Medicinal Plant (Paris Polyphylla Smith.) in Nagaland, India and Introduction of New Concept Model (Mosaic Model)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 565-576
Paris polyphylla Smith. is a perennial herb, over exploited for its medicinal value and other anthropogenic activities like traditional method of Slash and Burn' (Jhuming) farming practice has reduced much of its habitat. As such the need to describe its potential habitats arises; this is achieved with Climate Suitability Modeling. The model was developed using 12 presence points. Temperature of coldest quarter and precipitation of warmest quarter act as an important determinant in the development of the model, these climatic variables correspond with the climatic conditions in the predicted areas which is necessary for post dehiscence maturation of seeds. Ground truthing work was being carried out to ascertain the highly predicted areas and plants were also introduced in areas predicted as suitable as well as in areas predicted as not suitable to confirm the usefulness of the model. The model also corresponds with an experiment on seed germination by temperature stratification. The study gives a different approach on validation of habitat modeling in addition with the statistical significance by observing plant response introduced in areas predicted suitable and unsuitable as well as matching plant physiology and the influences of the climatic variables on it. This work introduces a new concept modeling named 'Mosaic Model' for those species which are sensitive to different climatic conditions. In this concept model a big area can be fragmented into small areas depending on different climatic conditions. Model can be prepared for each area followed by stitching of these small models into one model (Mosaic model). This model would be able to predict the distribution of a species growing in diverse environmental condition.

Keywords: Distribution prediction model; ENM; Mosaic model; Nagaland; Paris polyphylla; Conservation of threatened species; Threatened plant.

A.I. Semeniuc, I. Popa

Comparative Analysis of Tree Ring Parameters Variation in Four Coniferous Species: (Picea Abies, Abies Alba, Pinus Sylvestris and Larix Decidua)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 591-598
The objective of this study is to compare yearly variability of the tree ring parameters of coniferous species (spruce, fir, Scots pine and larch) in the north-eastern part of the Eastern Carpathians (Romania). The microcores were collected at the end of the vegetation season in 2012. Micro-sections were prepared in order to analyses the tree-rings characteristics for the last three vegetation seasons. To emphasize the influence of species and interannual climate variation on tree growth, the following parameters were used: total tree ring width, number of tracheids and mean tracheids dimension. All the species showed different dynamics of the tracheids number, as well as of the tree-ring width in the three studied vegetation seasons. The highest growth in term of cells number was observed in Picea abies, whereas a reduced cells number but with higher dimensions was observed in Larix decidua. The variability of radial growth of the xylem in relation with the climate was discussed for each species separately.

Keywords: Cell number; Climatic factors; Tree-ring width.

G. Kamh, N. Klitzsch

Testing Single and Mixed Resins for Consolidating Moderately Weathered Limestone of Archaeological Sites, New Applied Techniques

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 599-610
Weathering is one of the most aggressive processes acting on natural and artificial materials world-wide. So, this paper aims to examine the efficacy of three resins highly recommended as consolidating material for oolitic limestone. These resins are namely; Ethyl Silicate, Premal-AC33, and Paraloid-B80. Petrographic, mineralogical, geotechnical properties, and durability investigations have been conducted for this limestone before treatment with such resins. The treatment with these resins has been conducted through two regimes namely; repeated brushing, and total impregnation within each resin at each level of concentration. Samples' surface color, resin's penetration depth, rock's geotechnical and durability properties' limits are the main basis of examining these resins. The net result indicated that Paraloid-B80 dissolved in acetone, ethyl silicate "dissolved in ethyl alcohol" mixed with Paraloid-B80 "dissolved in acetone or toluene" verified the best results as stone consolidating material. Rock's pore size distribution is one of the main parameters controlling rock's durability before and/or after consolidation with a given resin. Resin's viscosity controls resin's penetration depth within a given rock.

Keywords: Oolitic limestone; Ethyl silicate; Primal-AC33; Paraloid-B80; Consolidation

Publication date: 15.09.2018

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