International Journal of Conservation Science

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Volume 7, Issue 2, 2016

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Research articles

S. Borrego, S. Gómez de Saravia, O. Valdés, I. Vivar, P. Battistoni, P. Guiamet

Biocidal Activity of Two Essential Oils on Fungi That Cause Biodeterioration of Paper Documents

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 369-380
The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocidal activity of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L. M. Perry (nail) and Allium sativum L. (garlic) against different fungal species producing paper biodeterioration. Essential oils (EOs) were obtained from harvested plants in their natural habitat in Cuba, and were tested against the species Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. which were isolated from archival indoor environments and documents with patrimonial value The biocidal activity was studied at different concentrations (70, 50, 25, 12.5 and 7.5%) using the agar diffusion method. The effect of extracts on paper alterations was studied through different techniques including determination of pH and number of copper and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The determination of inhibition zones by the agar diffusion method of the tested EOs showed a moderate and/or positive effect. The study of the antifungal activity on paper (“in vivo”) shows that both clove and garlic oils were potent biocides. Although the paper structure was not affected by EOs pure, some molecular damages were observed at lower concentrations across determinations of the pH and copper number.

Keywords: Biodeterioration; Documents; Essential oils; Fungi; Paper; SEM.


G. Abdel-Maksoud, A. El-Sayed

Microscopic Investigation for Condition Assessment of Archaeological Bones from Different Sites in Egyp

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 381-394
Bones are found in different archaeological sites in Egypt. The bones samples examined in this study were collected from eight archaeological sites and two museum store houses. The samples were collected from different environments (dry and moist). Collected samples suffer from adverse deterioration, which was mainly due to burial environments. Many aspects of deterioration are found on the surface of the bones such as darkness, stains which may be derived from different sources, pitting etc. This study focuses on the changes that occur on the surface of bones in burial environments and in museum storehouses. Digital, optical, polarized and scanning electron microscopes were used to evaluate studied samples. (The results revealed that most environmental conditions in most locations let to many aspects of deterioration) such as pitting, erosion, change of color and etc. Humid environmental are more aggressive on the studied bone samples than dry conditions.

Keywords: Bones; Archaeological sites; Deterioration; Microscopy.


M. Fernandes, S. Babo, M.F. Macedo

Oil Painting Collection: Risk Assessment, Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 395-414
“Casa dos Patudos”, a historic house museum, has a large collection of oil paintings on permanent display. Many of the problems affecting this collection do not have simple answers. Ideal solutions may be too expensive or unattainable. Consequently, an approach to establishing priorities and planning improvements is imperative. The Cultural Property Risk Model was applied to this oil painting collection. The magnitude of the specific risks for this collection were calculated in order to provide a well informed decision making, taking into account the type of mitigation strategies possible to implement in a historic house. The top five hazards affecting this collection were: the high relative humidity values and fluctuations, incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, damages caused by wood borers and excessive light exposure. Some of the mitigations actions proposed involve the increase of doors and windows insulation, providing staff training on paintings collection care and preventive conservation, implementation of an integrated pest management program. Although this work was applied to a specific oil painting collection, many other historic houses have oil painting collections under similar risks as the ones reported in this work.

Keywords: Preventive Conservation; Risk Assessment; Oil Painting; Historic House.

S. Ricci, F. Antonelli, B. Davidde petriaggi, D. Poggi, C. Sacco Perasso

Observations of Two Mosaic Fragments from The Underwater City of Baiae (Naples, Italy): Archaeological, Geological and Biological Investigations

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 415-430
Bioerosion of submerged Roman calcareous mosaic floors from the Underwater Archaeological Park of Baiae (Naples, Italy) was examined. Epilithic colonization and endolithic biodegradation of the tesserae were studied on two recovered mosaic fragments using different analyses. 32 taxa were identified. Polished thin sections were achieved to study mortars and lithotype. SEM observations permitted the identification of micro and macroborers by using the embedding-casting technique. The study showed that the damage of the limestone tesserae was higher on the peripheral parts of the fragments. The results characterized the bioerosion of the submerged floors and offered a useful contribution in defining future conservation strategies.

Keywords: Baiae-Naples; Mosaics; Limestone tesserae; Bioerosion

D. Mukherjee, S. Bhattacharyya, P. Chaudhuri

Fumigation of Eucalyptus Oil for Controlling Strong Room Fungi at Jorasanko Museum (Tagore’s Residence), India: A Study for Sustainable Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 431-442
Presently thymol is used as fungal repellent in several museums worldwide. Thymol is a reported decolorizing (foxing) agent and also harmful for human health (toxicity category-III). In the present study it has been observed that thymol is being used to conserve about three thousand rare documents belonging to Nobel Laureate poet Ranindranath Tagore and his ancestrals in Jorasanko Museum, India. The objective of our study was to promote a suitable nontoxic alternative for long term conservation of museum materials. Eucalyptus oil was selected for this purpose. Percentage Mycelial Inhibition (PMI) had been studied using 24 ppm, 48 ppm, 72 ppm and 96 ppm of eucalyptus oil on ten fungi isolated from the strong room of the museum. Both thymol and eucalyptus oil had been fumigated and fungal counts were observed after two days. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 48 ppm eucalyptus oil and 4 days fumigation frequency yield optimum fungal control. It was sensitive for individual strains like Aspergillus tamari (32% removal) and Trichoderma sp (64% removal) which was not controlled by thymol fumigation. This study revealed that eucalyptus oil has better potentiality and can be used for long-term conservation of museum objects in future.

Keywords: Eucalyptus oil; Museum conservation; Museum fungi; Foxing.

N.A. Abd El-Tawab Bader, A.M. Ashry

The Cleaning of The Isis Temple`s Mural Paintings in Upper Egypt using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Non-ionic Detergent

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 443-458
The Greek-Roman Isis temple is located on the west bank of Luxor; Upper Egypt was made of sandstone and decorated with different kinds of wall paintings. It suffers from many causes of deterioration and degradation mainly ground water, salt weathering, and different types of dirt accumulations on the relives and paint surface such as soot, grease, wax, biodeteriorated colored patches, bat patches, waste of birds and even house fly specks. All these lead to the gradual disappearance of paintings. In the present article we report a study on some Nanoparticles Materials synthesized by sol-gel process to set up a cleaning system to remove a wide range of different types of organic and inorganic materials from the surface of the wall paintings of the Isis temple. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, different mural painting samples were collected from the temple for analytical characterization. The materials were characterized by optical microscopy, polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. According to the results, a number of wall painting samples were selected with paint layers that were composed of different pigments and covered with different patches. The experimental tests indicated the efficacy of mixture of ZnO nanoparticles (NP) + Vulpex K5P3O10 (potassium methyl cyclohexyl) (1:1) in the removing of wax, stains and blood patches. The results were supported by detailed photographic documentation, Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra and color change parameters.

Keywords: Nanoparticles; Isis Temple; Mural Painting; Cleaning; Nonionic Detergent Cleaning; Color Stability

M. Ghoniem

Characterization and Scientific Conservation of a Group of Archaeological Bronze Egyptian Statues

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 459-467
Several archaeological bronze statuettes adhered randomly to a bigger statue of goddess Sekhmet as a big mass, which was excavated from Sais and most likely dates to C.600 BC, and was investigated and conserved. They were in a poor condition, retained intact their thick corrosion crust incorporated with residual burial soil. Both the surface corrosion products and the metal substrates were studied to understand the objects corrosion process and to obtain information about their chemical composition before the conservation procedures. Optical Microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDX) were used for disclosing corrosion features, the nature and composition of the patina, and compositional analysis of the study group. The results indicated that the objects have been buried in wet sandy saline soil or were exposed in storage to an environment rich in many aggressive ions such as chloride, sulfur and oxygen. These corrosive conditions reflected on the patina and the composition of the corrosion layers that mostly composed of chlorides, sulfates and oxides. The objects were made by solid casting technique except the statue of Sekhmet that was made using the hollow casting technique. All the objects were made of Lead-bronze alloy, with a lead content ranging from 5.43% to 19.12%. Different approaches of cleaning were adopted according to the condition of the objects, in order to remove the corrosion and soil disfiguring deposits and to reveal the original surface details. The loose, powdery and thick encrustations were removed by subsequent manual cleaning down to the level of the original surface. The hard corrosion crust on the other objects was stripped chemically with a less aggressive alkaline solution. This procedure was followed by successive baths in distilled water and drying cycles, followed by a succession of acetone baths. For stabilization, all the treated objects were placed in 5% w/v benzotriazole in ethanol solution to prevent future outbreaks of corrosion. Finally, the objects were coated with a protective coating of Paralloid B-44 acrylic co-polymer dissolved in toluene and a waxy coating of microcrystalline wax (Cosmoloid H80) as a superficial topcoat barrier against water or water vapor and to offer a more robust protective system.

Keywords: Bronze statues; XRD; EDS; corrosion products; leaded bronze; conservation

M. El Khalili

Damage Assessment of the Roman Nymphaeum in Amman, Jordan: an Analytical and Diagnostic Study

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 477-492
This research aims to assess the deterioration conditions and their causes that affected the Roman Nymphaeum in Amman. The monument was built over a cave with running spring water. Thus, the damp condition started from the beginning and generated different problems such as the weakness of the foundation, raising damp and the subsequent salt crystallization, erosion and micro-organism growth. The other major problem of the monument is its current location within the modern urban environment of today’s city of Amman with high concentration of air pollution, vibration, and necessary urban infrastructural changes such as the installing of a sewage system that goes under the structure and the main streets around the building. Several deterioration features can be identified in the Nymphaeum including stone weathering, rising damp, efflorescence, sub-florescence, erosion, staining, crumbling, chipping, cracking, detachment, and flaking. To determine the deterioration factors in the monument, scientific techniques of analysis and examination were used such as XRD and SEM attached with EDX and it was concluded that this monument is suffering from severe deterioration and damage. As a result this study can provide the basis for establishing a comprehensive conservation plan for saving the monument within a context of a larger urban plan to give it a better role to be defined for the future, especially for tourism purposes.

Keywords: Roman Nymphaeum; Architectural damage; Physical deterioration; Chemical degradation; Salt damage; Biological growth; Air pollution; XRD; SEM, EDX.

A. Sallam, Y. Zhao, M. Hassan, M. Toprak, M. Muhammed, A. Uheida

Studies on the Deterioration of Coptic Mural Paintings in the Monastery of Martyrs and the Luxor Temple

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 493-500
In this study the surfaces and cross sections of deteriorated Coptic mural paintings were investigated using Computer Tomography (CT) scan images and video, and points (voids) on the surface were analyzed. To our knowledge, it is the first report on the application of CT scan for the investigation of deteriorated Coptic mural painting surfaces in Upper Egypt. The samples tested were collected from two sites: the Monastery of Martyrs (Deir alShuhada-Esna) and the Luxor temple. The selection of these monasteries was due to their historical importance, which is directly related to Egyptian Coptic heritage. The deteriorated surfaces of the selected mural paintings were characterized using new avenues of computed X-ray tomography (CT scan) in order to gather sufficient information about their composition and structure. The obtained results show that CT scan images provided us with detailed information about the sample porosity and structure. In the case of the Martyrs monastery, it was found that the mural paintings consist of one layer which contains clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite) in the form of coarse plaster. On the other hand, the Martyrs Monastery showed higher porosity than the Roman Fresco in the Luxor Temple.

Keywords: CT-scan; Deterioration; Conservation; Coptic mural painting.

O.E. Hapciuc, G. Romanescu, I. Minea, M. Iosub, A. Enea, I. Sandu

Flood Susceptibility Analysis of The Cultural Heritage in The Sucevita Catchment (Romania)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 501-510
The intensification of natural hazards and the expansion of human impact are likely to threaten the cultural heritage of a region. The multidisciplinary approach identifies the flood susceptible areas, it relates them to the cultural heritage sites and it also provides the flood risks mitigation measures for these monuments. The Sucevita catchment is unique considering certain important landmarks of the national heritage and the UNESCO World heritage (monasteries). The flood risk maps are considered important tools to determine the vulnerability of the heritage monuments in developing the protection and the conservation strategies. The GIS technique and the comparative assessment of the risk factors allowed the identification of the heritage monuments that belong to the highest flood susceptibility area by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This area corresponds to the localities that are situated near the main course of the Sucevita river. In order to preserve the cultural heritage, it is necessary to implement some strategies and activities of flood risk management through structural and non-structural measures.

Keywords: Flood measures; GIS analysis; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); Preventive conservation; UNESCO.

O. Abdel-Kareem, A. Al-Zahrani, A. Khedr, M.A. Harith

Evaluating the Use of Laser in Analysis and Cleaning of the Islamic Marine Archaeological Coins Excavated from The Red Sea

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 511-522
This study aims to evaluate the use of laser in cleaning and LIBS analysis of the Islamic Marine Archaeological coins excavated from under the Red Sea water. Laser tests using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm were performed on 2 different types of corroded coins. For evaluating the usefulness of the suggested setup protocol of laser used in this study, the coins taken into study were investigated, before and after the laser cleaning, with Scanning Electron Microscope with attached energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX). The results show that the number of shots of LIBS is a very important task while acquiring LIBS spectra. The first shot is very useful for investigating the corrosion layer. The fourth and the fifth shot are useful for investigating the core of the coins with a medium layer of corrosion. The second shot is the best for the coins covered with very thin layers of tarnish. This study confirms that the fifth shot (20 pulses) is the best condition to clean the coin with a medium layer of corrosion, while the second shot (2 pulses) is the best condition to clean the coin with a very thin layer of corrosion.

Keywords: Marine archaeological coins; Laser cleaning; Nd:YAG laser; LIBS; SEM-EDX


R. Nongmaithem, M.S. Lodhi, P.K. Samal, P.P. Dhyani, S. Sharma

Faunal Diversity and Threats of The Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve: A Study from Assam, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 523-532
The paper in an attempt to develop an inventory of faunal diversity of Dibru-Saikhwa Biosphere Reserve (DSBR) of Assam which is one of the important Biosphere Reserves of the Eastern Indian Himalaya and to highlight the threats that the BR is facing over the years so as to decisively support the need for conservation efforts. After compilation and analysis from various data sources the BR depicts the presence of 503 species of birds, 37 species of mammals, 42 species of reptiles, 17 species of amphibian, 104 species of fishes, 105 species of butterfly and 91 globally threatened faunal species, while the Soil microbial diversity in the BR is contributed by 26 soil micro-fungal forms. The rich biodiversity of the BR is under stress due to natural and human pressures. As per the recent studies, the BR has lost an area of 77.14km2 due to revirine stress and 3.71km2 has been encroached as per the State Forest Report.

Keywords: Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere; Eastern Himalaya; Biodiversity; Protected Area.

J. Sethy, N.S. Chuahan

Status and Distribution of Malayan Sun Bear in Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 533-552
The Malayan sun bear Helarctos malayanus, is categorized globally as a Critically Endangered species on the IUCN Red List. However, recent studies have indicated that sun bear have disappeared from large areas, probably as a result of habitat loss, a low prey base and poaching, indicating this species may not be as common in India as previously believed. Our findings indicate that the species has declined dramatically, with confirmation of presence at only some sites in provinces, despite extensive surveys. Current populations are small and fragmented, and occur mainly in tiger reserve. In Namdapha Tiger Reserve, 379 different bear signs were identified along 43 transects. The number of claw marks was found to be highest as compared to number of scats, nests, diggings, dens and footprints. All these bear signs were observed in summer, monsoon and winter months in different forest types in Namdapha Tiger Reserve. The mean signs were highest during the winter months (41.5±5.80), followed by monsoon months (31.0±6.25) and summer months (22.25±3.83) during the study periods. There was a distinct relationship between season, elevation and density of bear signs per unit area (R2 Linear = 0.81488). The density of bear signs showed an increasing trend with the increasing elevation in the tiger reserve. But from 1500m and above, the density of bear signs decreased drastically. In India, there is no information on the population status, distribution and ecology of sun bear. Our findings are the first reliable estimates of the current distribution and status of the Malayan sun bear in India, and provide valuable information that will help guide the conservation efforts.

Keywords: Status; Distribution; Sun bear; Namdapha TR; Arunachal Pradesh

M.Z. Haque, M.I.H. Reza, M.M. Alam, Z.U. Ahmed, M.W. Islam

Discovery of a Potential Site for Community-Based Sustainable Ecotourism in the Sundarbans Reserve Forests, Bangladesh

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 553-566
Conservation of biological diversity is a pressing need and protected areas are the cornerstones for conserving remaining flora and fauna. However, forest dependent livelihood in countries like Bangladesh is making this task very critical. In the case of the poor and forest-dependent livelihood in the Sundarbans area of Bangladesh, an eco-friendly ecotourism may provide an alternative livelihood, which may reduce the overexploitation from the valuable Sundarbans forest ecosystems. Furthermore, this initiative may also serve to aware people on the value of these unique ecosystems. Therefore, this study discusses the scope, benefits and challenges for developing sustainable ecotourism within the protected area. It focuses on the development of a potential site having ecological and archaeological values for sustainable ecotourism inside the Sundarbans Reserve Forest. Developing sustainable tourism spots inside the wildlife hub has a high demand among tourists and it is also necessary for the socio-economic development of the local community, moreover, the approach of community-based ecotourism (CBEM) is a suitable strategy for the conservation of protected areas.

Keywords: Community Based Ecotourism (CBEM); Biodiversity conservation; Sustainability; Site development; Protected area

K.L. Adopo, M.Y. N'guessan, A.V. Sandu, G. Romanescu, I.G. Sandu

The Spatial Distribution and Characterization of Sediments and the Bottom Morphology of the Hydroelectric Lake in Ayamé 2 (Ivory Coast)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 567-578
A sedimentological study was carried out at the lake of Ayamé, with the purpose of determining, by using granulometric and mineralogical characteristics, the origin, the transport process and the space distribution of sediments. In the lake of Ayamé one distinguishes in the downstream sector a prevalence of mud and fine sands. In the upstream sector sands are mainly middle to coarse in size. The muds are localized in the vicinities of the banks, while sands are found in the principal channel of the lake. The minerals found in the sediments are heavy minerals (amphibole, tourmaline, diopside and epidote) and light minerals (quartz and feldspaths). The morphoscopy of the quartzes revealed the prevalence of rounded and bright particles, representing a lake transport over a relatively long distance.

Keywords: Dam; Lake; Grain size; Mineralogy; Morphology; Ayamé, Cote d’Ivoire

K. Shaikh, G.S. Gachal, S.Q. Memon, M.Y. Shaikh

Assessment of Environmental Issues of Amphibian Fauna in Taluka Thano Bula Khan (District Jamshoro) Sindh-Pakistan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 579-588
The present study was conducted in a subdivision of District Jamshoro “Taluka Thano Bula Khan” to analyze the water quality of amphibian’s ponds. The field surveys were carried out from 2011-2013 at six ponds, where the permanent habitation of amphibians was confirmed The water quality of each pond was analyzed using the standard methodology and scientific instrumentation. During this three years study, it was determined that the pH and carbon dioxide (mg L-1) were the only parameters, whose values (8.0±0.6 and 18.2±3.32 respectively) were normal in whole study area, while the values of electric conductivity (μS cm-1) 2821.8±1202.2, total dissolved solids (mg L-1) 1861.8±759.0, total hardness (mg L-1) 367.7±56.0, total alkalinity (mg L-1) 351.7±54.9, chloride (mg L-1) 377.6±135.4, sulphate (mg L-1) 463.8±125.5, phosphate (mg L-1) 439.2±124.9 and potassium (mg L-1) 67.5±10.7 were above the normal limit. It was also determined that the concentration of nitrite (mg L-1) 2.2±1.6 and nitrate (mg L-1) 6.1±4.3) varied from low to high values. Present research recorded the high rate of pollution in the entire environment of amphibians, where no conservation action is ever implemented for the conservation of these delicate animals; even this present study is unique, due to the fact that it highlights the ruined status of amphibian ambient for the first time in Taluka Thano Bula Khan.

Keywords: Amphibian environment; Water quality issues; Physico-chemical Parameters; Taluka Thano Bula Khan; District Jamshoro; Sindh; Pakistan

Publication date: 15.06.2016

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