International Journal of Conservation Science

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Volume 10, Issue 4, 2019

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Research articles

G. Montana, L. Randazzo, C. Blasetti Fantauzzi

Archaeometric Characterization of Late Archaic Ceramic from Erice (Sicily) Aimed to Provenance Determination

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 605-622

A set of 20 ceramic samples was autoptically selected from the numerous findings recovered from the stratigraphic excavations of the late Archaic city walls of Erice (western Sicily), in order to be analyzed with archaeometric techniques for provenance determination. The excavations were recently carried out as part of a research project funded by the Freie Universiät Berlin and the Fritz Thyssen Foundation. Specifically, the ceramic material consists of tableware with a painted geometric decoration of presumed local/regional production, as well as apparently imported black-glazed pottery. Both the categories can be traced back to a chronological period between the second half/last quarter of the 6th and the beginning of the 5th century BC. The methodological approach was aimed to the characterization of the ceramic pastes in terms of relative abundance, size distribution and mineralogical composition of the aplastic inclusions by the observation of thin sections with the polarizing microscope. The objective of the microscopic observations consisted in verifying the existence of textural and/or mineralogical analogies to be ascribed to the same clayey raw material and, consequently, to the same production centre. The chemical analyses of the same set of ceramic samples were carried out using the ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques (55 elements in total). The aim of chemical analyses was to verify the adequacy of the petrographic classification and identify any chemical marker useful for provenance determination. All the analyzed samples of painted ceramic with geometric decoration have consistent compositional and textural characteristics, to the point of considering their assignment to a single ‘paste group’. Specifically, it was found the use of very peculiar clay rich in calcareous bioclasts among the included aplastic and relatively poor in quartz and mica. The production, well distinguishable from those to date already attested in western Sicily, could be local. Concerning samples taken from the ceramic fragments decorated with black glaze, the evidence derived from mineralogical-petrographic observations and chemical analyses help confirm their importation from extra-insular production centres, specifically from the Attic region. The Ca-poor paste and the peculiar concentration of many trace elements such as Cr, Ni, Co, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Sc, Be, V, Ga, Ge, Sn, Tl in the ceramic body strongly support this hypothesis.

Keywords: Erice; Sicily; Ceramic archaeometry; Archaic painted pottery with geometric decoration; Attic black-glazed pottery.

L. Shumka

Comparison of Indoor Climate Features Following Different Climate Guidelines in Conservation Examples of Selected Churches in Albania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 623-630
Recommendations for relative humidity and temperature in different buildings of cultural heritage were initially developed from practical surveys on the interaction between works of art and the surrounding environment with its climatic features. Nowadays there are different approaches in terms of conservation of cultural heritage, while a specific European standardization activity in this field of conservation is essential to acquire a common unified scientific solution to the problems relevant to the cultural property. The cultural heritage monuments are exposed to weather and influence of various environmental parameters. Physicals, chemicals and biological factors interact with constitutive materials inducing changes both in its compositional and structural characteristics. A certain aspect of matter transformation is due to the metabolic activity connected with the growth of living organisms. A scientific approach is essential for the conservation of cultural heritage as a preliminary basis that will ensure effective planning of ordinary and extraordinary maintenance works, as well to assure their efficacy and durability. The scope of EN 15757:2010 is to establish standards in the field of the processes, practices, methodologies and documentation of conservation of tangible cultural heritage to support its preservation, protection and maintenance and to enhance its significance. In this paper we are focused on standardization on the characterization of deterioration processes and environmental conditions for cultural monuments in Albania (both church and mosque, primarily, but not only), with regard to indoor environmental climate conditions (temperature, relative humidity) very helpful with regards of conservation, restoration, repair and maintenance. Three old churches of St. Marry of Zvernec, St. Marry in Bishqethem Lushnja, dedicated to Christ’s ascension, and the St. Nicola Church in Shelcan Elbasan with its spectacular interior completely covered with frescoes by Onufri that belongs to 15th century were considered as case study within current paper.

Keywords: Cultural heritage; Indoor climate; Conservation; Church; EN 15757:2010

T.E. Mebarka, A. Abdessemed-Foufa

Conservation and Enhancement of the 19-20th Century Architecture, Case of the Historic Center of Tebessa in Algeria

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 631-642
Like other cities in the Maghreb, Algerian cities have an architectural and urban heritage that belongs to the colonial period (19th / 20th century), and occupy an important place in the national real estate.This specific study deals with the historic center of Tebessa in Algeria, an example of a large urban and architectural stratification, the last layer dates back to 1842-1962 (period of French colonization). This legacy, however, remains unknown and ignored as heritage and it is in a state of constant degradation, despite its great heritage value. This worrisome situation of negligence prompts us to raise the following questions: How can we revalue this heritage? What is the place of colonial architecture in Algerian heritage legislation? The aim of this paper is to determine the value and importance of this heritage through a dual perspective of knowledge and recognition. Therefore, a descriptive methodology was selected to express what the land of Tebessa offers us as an architectural variety of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in terms of value and state of conservation, we crossed it with the historical sources in order to elaborate the heritagization process of this built heritage.

Keywords: Tebessa; Conservation; 19th and 20th century; Colonial heritage.

O.V. Fomina

Alabaster Sculpture St. Hyacinthus’s Madonna. Problems of Attribution and Restoration

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 643-652
This article presents an art analysis of the alabaster sculpture “St. Hyacinthus’s Madonna”, which is now stored in the Lviv Museum of History of Religion. The paper addresses the issues of composition, style and proportional alignment. Comparative, compositional and proportional analysis were used to fulfil the outlined tasks. A method of visual examination was used to describe a conservation state of the sculpture. A hypothesis that this artwork belongs to the Romanesque period was developed on the basis of the carried-out analysis. A restoration programme was worked out. In addition, the article describes the problems of alabaster sculpture conservation. Own graphic materials are given: reconstruction and cartogram of losses, construction of linear composition. Conclusions concerning the problems of attribution and restoration were made based on the carried-out study. Besides, the article recommends further technological examination of this cultural property.

Keywords: St. Hyacinthus’s Madonna; Alabaster; Sculpture; Attribution; Restoration problems.

M. Nabialek, B. Jez

The Impact of Additional Losses in Amorphous Transformer Cores on Vibrations - In the Context of Protection and Conservation of Exhibits and Historical Objects

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 653-660
Modern materials are increasingly used, directly or indirectly, in the protection of monuments. Electrical equipment is used in all laboratories, where monuments are subjected to conservation or restoration. Transformers are included in most of these electrical devices; and, in museums and laboratories, there are also distribution transformers. In these transformers, idling losses (also known as ‘transformer core losses’), play a major role in relation to significant changes in load. Materials in which magnetostriction occurs are commonly used to manufacture transformer cores. During the magnetization of the magnetic core of the transformer, there is a change in its dimensions, resulting in the formation of mechanical waves; these waves propagate, both in the air (giving the characteristic sound of a transformer in operation - with significant intensity for large installations), and also in the building structure - through fixtures installed in the ground and walls. High magnetostriction of the core material also creates significant releases of heat - which should be removed, so as not to damage the stored exhibits. Electrical devices usually work at low frequencies of 50 Hz - which causes the formation of waves of considerable wavelengths in the building structure. The suppression of these waves is problematic, and even at low amplitudes, in the long-term such waves can cause plastic deformation or fatigue of the materials from which exhibits are made, hence resulting in their gradual degeneration. Using a carefully selected chemical composition and an amorphous structure, material properties can be modeled in such a way as to obtain a material with almost zero magnetostriction. In addition, changes in chemical composition can lead to the reduction of losses on remagnetization; i.e. the reduction of energy consumption and the associated release of adverse heat. One of the components of losses due to magnetization is that of ‘additional losses’. As part of this work, amorphous samples of two alloys, Fe60Co10Y8Ni2B20 and Fe60Co10Y7Ni3B20, were produced using injection casting method. Dynamic performance tests were carried out on the manufactured materials using a Ferrometer. Based on the loss measurements, additional losses were determined in relation to the maximum induction. The relationship between the percentage share of additional losses and the maximum induction was found for both of the examined alloys.

Keywords: X-ray diffractionș Low-frequency mechanical waves core losses; Additional losses

S. Abdelaal, R. Yamani, M. Abdel-Fatah, I.G. Sandu

Salt Weathering of Imni Tomb. Problem Identification and Characterization

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 661-680
Imni Tomb is one of the most important tombs in Lisht, which was called Ist tawy in ancient Egyptian language. It is located about 60 km south west of the Egyptian capital Cairo, its history dating back to the Middle Kingdom that included two phases, the 11th Dynasty and the 12th Dynasty between 2050 to 1710 B.C. El-Lisht was investigated in 1882 by Egyptologist Gaston Maspero. The tomb suffered from salt weathering. The salt crystals can be seen clearly and starkly in the form of thick crust on the exposed surface of the tomb limestone and on the painted inscriptions. It led to losing some inscriptions and damaging others. Crystallized salts appeared in several forms; fluffy, needle, prismatic and cubic form. This proposal aimed to study the action of salts in Imni tomb, through studying the types of salts, the building materials and the nature of bed rock surrounding the tomb. types of salts formed were investigated to identify their origin, source and the crystallization process as well as studying the quality of building materials in the tomb, the bedrock to see the impact of salt weathering on them, and to determine the root causes of the problem and to develop a proposal for treatment and conservation. This study was carried out by using a variety of methods of analysis and examination. Physical properties of the building materials of Tomb. Generally, the results indicated that Calcite (CaCO3) was the main component of the Imni tomb and Halite (NaCl) was the main crystalized salt on the surface. The main source of these salts is the mother rock, where the salts are present in abundance and density. Salts crystallization in-between the minerals grains or below the exterior surface was the main cause of deterioration the exterior polish surface of the limestone blocks and what they had of painted inscriptions.

Keywords: Egypt; El-Lishet.; Imni Tomb; Salt weathering; XRD; XRF; Polarizing Microscopy

H. Tawalbeh, M. Al-Naamneh, W. Al Sekhaneh, W. Hwari

The Role of Cultural Heritage Resources Conservation in Educational Textbooks of Social and National Education in Basic Stage in Jordan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 681-688

This study seeks to investigate the role of Jordanian educational curricula in promoting and preserving the various forms of Jordanian cultural heritage. By adopting the approach of content analysis, it primarily examines the textbooks of the subject “social and national education” for the grades 4-10 in the Basic Education Stage to evaluate their role in educating students about cultural heritage and raising their awareness of its value. The study reveals that the textbooks under investigation have failed to educate students about how to deal with their cultural heritage and how to preserve it, particularly against the various threats and abuses that endanger it. This demonstrates the urgent need to integrate heritage education in school curricula as a significant pedagogical force in order to enhance and enrich students’ understanding and appreciation of cultural heritage.

Keywords: Cultural heritage; Education; Social and national textbooks; Jordan

V. Luca, O. Corbu, I. Sandu, I. Bucur

Rimetea, an Example of a Traditional Village from Romania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 689-700
Following the Roural Group’s fields study for Romanian Rural Arhitectural Guides, it was found that the main issues of the villages are the lack of jobs and an appropriate educational system. The village of Rimetea (Alba County) has an ascendant trajectory: its development, started in 1996, brought a lot of benefits in terms of tourism, economy, social and cultural life; for 23 years, the coordinators of the traditional Rimetea’s settlement rehabilitation project have carried out a hard work having a big goal: raising awareness among the locals regarding their architectural heritage. In 2000, Rimetea was already in an architectural protected area. This is not the only evolutionary moment of the village, because between the 15th and the 18th centuries, Rimetea becomes a settlement by the number of blacksmiths and demographics. As a conclusion, today Rimetea should be a role model village with jobs and a good level of education, but the field study shows that there is an essential thing missing: the lack of youth (the workforce)- the future! They have the duty to carry on the spirit of the place. With decreasing natural growth, the current population is represented by the aging population (>70 years) in a 60%-70% range. In this direction, warning signs must be issued.

Keywords: Rimetea; Rehabilitation; Rural; Village; Future; Natural growth; Demographics

A. Gunawan, F.M. Edison, W.Q. Mugnisjah, F.N.H. Utami

Indonesian Cultural Landscape Diversity: Culture-Based Landscape Elements of Minangkabau Traditional Settlement

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 701-710

Indonesia is an archipelago country that has high diversity in the form of biodiversity, cultural diversity, as well as the diversity of landscape visual characters. These diversities are interrelated to each other and form a tropical character of Indonesian traditional landscape. Minangkabau is one of the largest tribes that is well known for its rumah gadang (big house). The houses were culturally arranged into an attractive traditional settlement. The settlement was constructed by elements that support Minangkabau people’s lives. Those elements need to be appointed through research based on local culture. Purpose of the research was to study culture-based elements of Minangkabau traditional settlement landscape. The research site was located in Jorong Pariangan, Tanah Datar Regency, West Sumatra. The research used a descriptive method by using content analysis for custom manuscripts and interview results that contain elements of the settlements. The results show, there are twelve elements grouped into four basic elements: houses, mosque, surau, gelanggang (arena), medan nan bapaneh, cemetery, main road, tapian, river, forest, mixed garden, and ricefield. Minangkabau people activities accomodated by the elements were working, worshipping, learning, mastering self-defense, socializing, family care, recreation, cultural festival, funeral, and making judgment.

Keywords: Vernacular; Rumah gadang; Pariangan; Design concept; Landscape Pattern; Local wisdom

Sundari, A. Mas’ud, E.L. Arumingtyas, L. Hakim, R. Azrianingsih, D. Wahyudi

Taxonomical Status of Local Durian (durio spp.) from Ternate Island North Maluku Base on Morphological Character and Geographical Factor

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 711-720
Ternate Island has high variations of durian (Durio spp.). In the area, durian has many vernicular names as well as phenotypic differences. Currently, information about genetic diversity and taxonomical status has not enough yet. This research first reported the taxonomical status of local durian from Ternate. This study aimed to investigate and identify of species that have not been identified in order to taxonomical position be clearly. The results revealed that the taxonomical status of local durian (Durio spp.) in Ternate island can be grouped as species Durio zibethinus Murr and have distribution pattern spread in lowland. Durian pondak (T17) is know that the ancestor of the local durian from Ternate. Durian Afo (T22) and durian Moya (T23) are know that the highest similarity of morphological character. These three local durians are the native durian from Ternate. The phenomenon of anomaly for D zibethinus Murr. from Ternate have lowland hotspot with coastal environmental factors. In generally D zibethinus Murr can grow well in the highlands this is different for native Durio spp from Ternate island.

Keywords: Taxonomical status; Durio spp; Native; Sinaphomorphy; Ternate

O. Imarhiagbe, E.I. Aigbokhan

Studies on Thonningia Sanguinea Vahl. (balanophoraceae) in Southern Nigeria. RANGE and Host Preference

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 721-732
Studies on the host-parasite relationship are intrinsically linked with the nature of parasitic plants. No such records have been recorded for Thonningia sanguinea (Balanophoraceae), a rare, cryptic, obligate holoparasitic plant endemic to tropical Africa. This study reports on its host range and preference in Southern Nigeria. Its presence and current distribution ranges were plotted from reconnaissance surveys conducted across selected forested areas in Southern Nigeria, comprising, national parks, forest reserves, and community-managed forests. To detect specific hosts, soil excavation leading from parasite to host was conducted. The results showed a broad host range with a special preference for native trees and members of the Euphorbiaceae and Urticaceae. Among the common host trees were: Guarea cedrata (Meliaceae), Lophira alata (Ochanaceae), Musanga cecropiodes (Urticaceae), Myrianthus arboreus (Urticaceae), and Ricinodendron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae). Only Hevea brasiliensis and Theobroma cacao were of exotic origin. Lophira alata was the most susceptible infected host plant with a percentage infestation rate of 28.77, while Musanga cecropiodes had the highest percentage occurrence as host with 31.57 %. This finding could have significant implications on the conservation status of the plant, which accounting for current IUCN status is Not Evaluated (NE). In situ conservation is however recommended.

Keywords: Parasitic plant; Cryptic; Host range; Conservation; Thonningia sanguinea

D. Adom

Dietary Taboos as a Means of Ethnic and Place Identity of the Bono People of Ghana: Indirect Cultural Practices for the Conservation of Fauna Species

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 733-748
This study explored the dietary taboos of the Bono people in four selected communities in the Techiman Municipality of Ghana. Arguments from the symbolist and materialist perspectives are presented in the paper within the framework of the Durkheimian theory of sacralization. Qualitative empirical data from 85 purposively sampled participants consisting of traditional chiefs, traditional priests, elderly residents and park officers in the Wildlife Division (Forestry Commission) of Ghana formed the basis of the study. Personal interviews, Focus Group Discussions and non-participant observation under the phenomenology research method were the means of data collection which were analysed thematically. The symbolist perspective of the study revealed the socio-cultural significance of the dietary taboos as markers of ethnic and place identities of the Bono people. The materialist perspective argued the ecological benefits of the dietary taboos in maintaining the buoyancy of the ecology and ensuring the conservation of fauna diversities in the region. The study concludes that dietary taboos hold high potentials as behavioural control mechanisms for regulating the attitudes of people towards the resources in the environment. Also, traditional authorities in local regions could be used as regulatory bodies in ensuring the implementation of environmental conservation programs by the environmental agencies.

Keywords: Dietary taboos; Ethnic identity; Fauna diversity; Bono people; Conservation; Culture; Place identity; Theory of sacralization

S. Withaningsih, Parikesit, J. Iskandar, D.M. Prawiradilaga

Conservation and Management Strategies for the Sustainability of Raptors in a Human-Modified Landscape

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 749-762
Raptors are indicators of biodiversity, environmental health and habitat quality because of their sensitivity to human disturbance and environmental contamination. Nest site selection can have important nesting success consequences in raptors. In relation to this, a spatial analysis was undertaken to assess the relationship between landscape structure and the presence of predator nests in the human-modified landscape of Panaruban and Telaga Warna, West Java, Indonesia. The methods used in the study were qualitative (descriptive analysis) and quantitative (using Fragstats v.2.0). The study employed four circular buffers at distances of 250, 500, 750 and 1000m around each nest tree in order to analyse the relationship between raptor nest occurance and landscape structure. The results showed that the landscape of Panaruban and Telaga Warna is a mosaic consisting of natural and artificial vegetation of different structures. The four species of raptors identified were the Javan hawk eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi), the changeable hawk eagle (Spizaetus. cirrhatus), the crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) and the Indian black eagle (Ictinaetus malayensis), which tend to select nesting sites that have alow degree of landscape contrast for a distance of 250m around the nest. In terms of landscape complexity, however, there were no great differences among the nesting sites at a distance of 250m. The edge density around the Indian black eagle nest was higher than for the other nests at distance of 250–1000m. Characteristic differences in nest site selection may be due to landscape structure at different scales around the nest. Certain management strategies should be undertaken, step by step, in order to maintain the sustainability of the raptor population and, at the same time, contribute positively to the local people living in the human-modified landscape in Panaruban and Telaga Warna.

Keywords: Landscape; Nesting site; Raptor conservation; Spatial analysis; Sustainability

A. El Harim, E. Cherkaoui, M. Khamar, A. Nounah

The Impact of the Depollution Project on the Quality of the Estuarine Ecosystem of Bouregreg (Morocco Atlantic Coast)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 763-772
On the Moroccan Atlantic coast, the Bouregreg estuary, known as a site of biological and ecological interest due to its great diversity of flora and fauna, has never ceased to cope with the numerous anthropic disturbances. In the context of environmental protection, a depollution project for the Bouregreg estuary and the coastline was launched in 2006. Present study proposes to evaluate the impact of eight years of depollution project estuary of Bouregreg, on the quality of its three components: water, sediment and benthic macrofauna. For this, six companions of studies of the benthic macrofauna were conducted along the Bouregreg estuary (8 study stations). In parallel, a follow-up of the characteristics of water: physicochemical (dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, BOD5, nitrates, orthophosphates, organic matter, mineral matter), bacteriological (faecal coliforms and fecal streptococci) and edaphic (granulometry and heavy metals) a been carried out during the four seasons of 2014-2015.

Keywords: Benthic macrofauna; Bacteriological; Bouregreg estuary; Depollution project; edaphic; Physicochemical parameters

R.P. Varela, J.R. Cayomo, R.A. Vanzuela, C.R.R. Millan

Plant Species Growing in Lateritic Soil with Ornamental Potential for Mined Land Rehabilitation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 773-780
Mine rehabilitation planning involves identifying plant species that can survive in the lateritic soil which is rich in nickel and iron but poor in the major nutrients. Thus plant species growing in the disturbed and undisturbed areas of the nickel mine were assessed. Thirty different species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas were identified and found to be highly tolerant of soil rich in nickel and iron content. Pteridium aquilinum, Saccharum spontaneum, and Imperata cylindrica were the most dominant species in the area based on presence in the various elevations of the mine site. The plant analysis, however, revealed Crypteronia paniculata and Leucosyke capitellata to have the highest content of nickel and iron. These two species have potentials for use as ornamental plants. These species can, therefore, be integrated into the mine rehabilitation program for eco-restoration and livelihood among people in the host communities.

Keywords: Mine rehabilitation; Ornamental plants; Laterite; Mined land; Ecosystem restoration

L. Dinca, G. Murariu, C. Iticescu, M. Budeanu, A. Murariu

Norway Spruce (picea abies (l.) karst.) Smart Forests from the Southern Carpathians

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 781-790
A The study begins with a complete analysis of the entire Norway spruce stands (36.183) from the Southern Carpathians. The main characteristics of these stands were analyzed, followed by a classification of their characteristics on favorability classes (from 1 to 5, from the lowest to the highest) based on their framing within the smart forest category. This classification has taken into account both the stand growing characteristics (diameter, height, volume, current growth), as well as some stand qualitative traits (lopping, vitality), forest functions (production/protection subunit, functional group and category) or site characteristics (flora, soil, forest type, station type). This is the first time when stands were classified based on their general adaptability character towards environment conditions, quantifying the notion of smart forests. The most representative Norway spruce smart forests are spread out in Retezat, Ierului, Șureanu and Piatra Craiului Mountains, at altitudes between 1000-1300 meters, on shaded expositions, dystric cambisol soils, in stands aged between 90 and 150 years. The participation percentage of Norway spruce in the stand composition and the field’s inclination does not influence the apparition of spruce smart forests. The usage of the term “smart forest” and the classification of stands in this category is a scientific and practical activity for the future.

Keywords: Smart forest; Stand; Stand growth; Forest functions; Site characteristics

F.F. Sukatis, N.M. Noor, N.A. Zakaria, A.Z. Ul-Saufie, A. Suwardi

Estimation of Missing Values in air Pollution Dataset by Using Various Imputation Methods

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 791-804
The aim of this study is to determine the best imputation method to fill in the various gaps of missing values in air pollution dataset. Ten imputation methods such as Series Mean, Linear Interpolation, Mean Nearest Neighbour, Expectation Maximization, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, 12-hours Moving Average, 24-hours Moving Average, and Exponential Smoothing (α = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8) were applied to fill in the missing values. Annual hourly monitoring data for ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity, SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10 from Petaling Jaya and Shah Alam were used from 2012 to 2016. These datasets were simulated into three types of missing data patterns that vary in length gaps of missing patterns, i.e. simple, medium and complex patterns. Each patterns was simulated into two percentages of missing, i.e. 10% and 20%. The performance of these imputation methods was evaluated using four performance indicator: mean absolute error, root mean squared error, prediction accuracy, and index of agreement. Overall, the Expectation Maximization method was selected as the best method of imputation to fill in the simple, medium and complex patterns of simulated missing data, while the Series Mean method was shown as the worst method of imputation.

Keywords: Air pollution; Estimation; Missing data; Imputation methods; Simulation; Performance indicators.

W. Sochacki, K. Bloch, S. Garus

Monuments Protection Against Vibrations and Noise Using Quasi One-Dimensional Acoustic Barriers

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 805-812
Continuous industrial development also entails negative effects such as increasing the intensity of road traffic or the use of more efficient but louder and vibration-producing industrial equipment. This generates high-intensity acoustic waves, which, apart from adverse effects on people, cause vibrations in historic architectural structures that can propagate throughout the building and affect exhibits. Strictly defined vibration frequencies even at low intensity can lead to resonance phenomena and destruction of the object. Modern phononic crystals, due to the occurrence of the phononic bandgaps phenomena (waves with given frequencies do not propagate in the structure) allow to eliminate unfavorable frequencies and to significantly reduce the energy carried by mechanical waves. The use of a genetic algorithm along with the transfer matrix method with a properly selected objective function proposed in the article allows for the design of quasi-one-dimensional structures allowing the construction of acoustic barriers with optimal properties that allow protection against mechanical waves of high intensity of particularly valuable places. As an example, the design of transparent 10, 15 and 20-layer barriers made of glass and PVC is shown. A significant reduction in the sound pressure level for the acoustic frequency range has been demonstrated.

Keywords: Vibration protection; Noise barriers; Transfer matrix; Genetic algorithm; Mechanical wave propagation

Review articles
B. Sanchez-Diaz, E.E. Mata-Zayas

Remote Sensing as Indispensable Technology in Ecology to Support the Protection of Biodiversity. A Review

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 813-822
The most promising application of remote sensing, at present, in ecology is related to the field of biodiversity. Some of the main threats to biodiversity are the fragmentation and loss of habitat due to deforestation caused by human activities; which in turn accelerates extinction rates in the species. However, biodiversity is difficult to quantify and measure, which is why remote sensing is a valuable tool for ecological research since, given its characteristics of spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolution, it is possible to try to measure certain variables of biodiversity. However, ecologists and space agencies, in a joint effort, have defined a list of essential variables with which biodiversity can be monitored from space. Thus, there is a need to implement new approaches and tools for their study and conservation, using remote sensing as a tool to support decision-making processes in biodiversity conservation efforts throughout the world.

Keywords: Biodiversity; Satellite images; Variables; Conservation

P. Sinha, R. Kumar

A Review on Management of Water Resources in South Africa

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 823-842
Globally water is a vital need. South Africa is getting quite less amount of rainfall (500 mm) in comparison to the global average (860 mm). This low rainfall coupled with wide variability in rainfall across wet eastern and dry western regions poses great challenges. This calls for integrated water resources management which encompasses synchronized expansion as well as management of not just water but also land and aquatic ecosystems. Besides water scarcity, a number of other hurdles exist including frequent droughts, flooding, salinity, illegal water abstraction and water allocation. Further, surface groundwater aquifers limit the full exploitation potential of groundwater resources. Pollution of groundwater is a challenge since groundwater is the most economical water resource for most small towns and rural villages. Based on the provisions of the National Water Act, 1997 of South Africa, a National Water Resources Strategy was developed but not able to resolve the issues. In this review, the different components of water resources management, in context to South Africa are discussed. Different categories of water usage spanning domestic, industrial, mining, hydropower and irrigation have been included. The overall ecological and environmental balance for ultimately sustaining has also been discussed.

Keywords: Water scarce; Climate change; Pollution of groundwater; National Water Act; South Africa

Publication date: 15.12.2019

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