International Journal of Conservation Science

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Volume 7, Issue 3, 2016

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Research articles

I.C.A. Sandu, P. Spiridon, I. Sandu

Current Studies and Approaches in the Field of Cultural Heritage Conservation Science. Harmonizing the Terminology in an Interdisciplinary Context

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 591-606
During the last years, both the problem of harmonizing the specific terminology of Conservation Science and the modern approach related to scientific investigation, preservation, restoration, display, respectively treasuring of the cultural heritage assets were frequently addressed during the important events and meetings in the field. With this in mind, this paper addresses some aspects concerning the nomenclature in the field, taken from interdisciplinary systems. Furthermore, it present a series of aspects developed by our research team, such as: heritage elements and functions, routes of the cultural assets with their historical context, the role of scientific investigation in valorisation of old artefacts, and current nomenclature of the specific professions in the field of Conservation Science.

Keywords: Cultural property; Specific terms; Nemenclature; Interdisciplinarty; Heritage elements and functions; routes of the cultural assets; historical context.


P.V. Alfieri, R. García, V. Rosato, M.V. Correa

Biodeterioration and Biodegradation of Wooden Heritage: Role of Fungal Succession

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 607-614
Wood from heritage is usually attacked by wood-decay fungi generating mainly loss of dimensional and structural stability. The study of wood biodegradation process and its mechanism allow the obtaining of tools for wood conservation. In this paper, wood biodeterioration and biodegradation processes were studied in order to acquire a direct and visual indicator of the beginning of wood degradation. This indicator will allow the consolidation and protection of wood before it will be structurally compromised. Wood degradation conditions found in turntable were reproduced in laboratory by accelerated processes: environment degradation was developed by fluctuation cycles of humidity and temperature. Biological degradation was performed using wood decay fungus isolated from wooden heritage samples. The wood samples were inoculated with an equal amount of mycelia until abortive basidiomata emerged. The result analysis indicated that even though each species occupies particular niches, first settlers (environmental fungi) would generate a material more bioreceptive for wood decay fungi being replaced each other as dynamic communities. Consequently, environmental fungi allow the wood decay fungi to colonise and exploit better their ecological niche (succession). It was concluded that the appearance of first settlers is therefore a reliable visual indicator of the need of wood consolidation in order to preventing irreversibly wooden heritage loss.

Keywords: Wooden artefact; Conservation state; Destruction and alteration; Wood decay fungi; Wood decay indicator; Wood preservation


S.V. Kumar, M. Singh, S.A. Waghmare, N.E. Mahajan, P.D. Sabale

Eradication of Vegetal Growth and Systematic Scientific Conservation Approach of Ballaleshwar Temple, Trimbakeshwar (India)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 615-626
This research emphasizes the impact of vegetation on historical monument of Ballaleshwar Temple, Trimbakeshwar, India and its systematic eradication and restoration strategies followed for the site. The lime mortar samples extracted deep within the rock were subjected to mineralogical and instrumental investigation using XRF, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The aggregates in the mortars were subjected to extensive petrological analysis to prepare matching repair mix for restoration. It appears that aggregates obtained through Basaltic rock disintegration were mixed in the mortar preparation for the temple. Major structural conservation measures were initiated in the form of stone elements removal and its subsequent restoration with lime mortar mix.

Keywords: Lime mortar; vegetation; conservation; replication; lime/silica; peepal tree.

A.S. Leal, A. Dionísio, M.A. Sequeira Braga, O. Mateus

The Long Term Preservation of Late Jurassic Sandstone Dinossaur Footprints in a Museum Environment

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 627-646
This study focuses on the assessment of the degradation processes occurring in three sandstone infills of fossilized Late Jurassic ornithopod tridactyl footprints, found in 2001 in a coastline cliff in Porto das Barcas (Lourinhã, Portugal) and exhibited in a museum display since 2004. These dinosaur footprints present nowadays severe decay phenomena compromising their physical integrity and are leading gradually to their loss of value. The deterioration patterns were recorded, a map of their distribution was prepared and several samples were collected both in the dinosaur footprints and in the coastline cliff. Different analytical procedures were applied such as XRD, FTIR, FESEM and Ion Chromatography. A microclimatic survey was also performed and air temperature and relative humidity was measured during eight months both indoor and also outdoor. The decay patterns observed are a combination intrinsic and extrinsic factors the stone material, namely swelling of clay minerals in the rock matrix (smectite and chlorite-smectite mixed-layer), presence of salts (mainly chlorides), application of past conservation treatments (poly(vinyl) acetate and epoxy resins) and with the museum’s indoor thermohygrometric conditions (mainly non-stable hygrometric conditions). This scientific knowledge is therefore essential to the sustainable preservation of this paleontological heritage.

Keywords: Dinosaur footprints; Sandstone; Museum; Decay; Clay minerals; Salts; Past treatments; Environmental microclimate.

S.A.M. Hamed, M.F. Mohamed

Characterization of Archaeological Wood Stained with Bat Excretions using Various Analytical Techniques

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 647-658
Presently thymol is used as fungal repellent in several museums worldwide. Thymol is a reported decolorizing (foxing) agent and also harmful for human health (toxicity category-III). In the present study it has been observed that thymol is being used to conserve about three thousand rare documents belonging to Nobel Laureate poet Ranindranath Tagore and his ancestrals in Jorasanko Museum, India. The objective of our study was to promote a suitable nontoxic alternative for long term conservation of museum materials. Eucalyptus oil was selected for this purpose. Percentage Mycelial Inhibition (PMI) had been studied using 24 ppm, 48 ppm, 72 ppm and 96 ppm of eucalyptus oil on ten fungi isolated from the strong room of the museum. Both thymol and eucalyptus oil had been fumigated and fungal counts were observed after two days. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 48 ppm eucalyptus oil and 4 days fumigation frequency yield optimum fungal control. It was sensitive for individual strains like Aspergillus tamari (32% removal) and Trichoderma sp (64% removal) which was not controlled by thymol fumigation. This study revealed that eucalyptus oil has better potentiality and can be used for long-term conservation of museum objects in future.

Keywords: Eucalyptus oil; Museum conservation; Museum fungi; Foxing.

R. Larsen, N. Coluzzi, A. Cosentino

Free XRF Spectroscopy Database of Pigments Checker

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 659-668
Pigments Checker is a collection of swatches of historical pigments that offers art professionals, conservation scientists, conservators and fine art photographers, a tool to evaluate and test their imaging and spectroscopic methodologies for pigment identification. “Pigments Checker Free Spectra Database” is an ongoing project that wants to thoroughly characterize each pigment in the collection with a series of spectroscopic and imaging techniques and to make the data open access. This paper presents the free and downloadable database of XRF spectra, adding to the reflectance spectral database already published. The XRF analysis is in agreement with the information provided by the pigments’ manufacturers since all of the pigments have XRF spectra consistent with the expected elemental content reported in literature. In addition to elemental characterization by XRF, future analysis with Raman, FT-IR and XRD will be pursued in order to achieve a broader characterization of the pigments.

Keywords: X-Ray Fluorescent Spectroscopy; Art; Paint Analysis; Pigments Checker

M. El-Gohary, A. Metawa

Cleaning of Architectural Bricks using RF Plasma. I. Metallic Stains

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 669-682
RF Plasma is a glow discharge typically generated through using oxygen and hydrogen as the input working gas. In the current study the radio frequency (RF) hydrogen plasma (H2) is used for removing some metallic stains (iron and copper) affected the historical brick surfaces in Prince Yousef Kamal place. Untreated and treated surfaces were evaluated by OLS, EDX-SEM & FTIR. Investigation results show that both iron and copper aged samples had been cleaned, where the stains thicknesses' were removed perfectly through. Analytical results of the accumulated particles demonstrate that they are decreased after cleaning process. In addition, morphological investigations proved the clearness of positive effects in the reducing of the samples surfaces' darkening and accumulations thickness' in all cleaned samples.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge; Capacitive coupled plasma; Artificial ageing; SEM-EDX, FTIR

G. Romanescu

Tourist Exploitation of Archaeological Sites in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Area (Romania)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 683-690
Romanian summer tourism has developed extraordinarily on the Black Sea coast and in the Danube Delta. The administration of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve took measures for the protection of the natural environment and for the local development of tourism (mostly of ecologic tourism). The cultural potential of Dobrudja (represented by world-famous archaeological sites placed on the limes of the Razim-Sinoe lagoon complex and of the Danube) has enabled the emergence of a new, specialized type of tourism in the Danube Delta: the cultural (archaeological) tourism. The interface between the Dobrudjan mainland and the Danube Delta comprises the largest archaeological treasure in Romania and even in Europe (in relation to the number of superficial sites). The advantage of developing such specialized tourism is also provided by the possibility of elaborating terrestrial or aquatic itineraries. Tourism can also be advantaged by the location of the legendary Greek Island of Peuce (the “Pine Island” mentioned by Herodotus) in the eastern sector of the Dunavăț Peninsula. The proposition made here is to develop cultural tourism based on the existence of historical vestiges within the area of the first Romanian region included in urban civilization.

Keywords: Natural environment; Sustainable exploitation; Littoral; Archaeological sites; Tourism

A.A. Afefe, E.-B.E. Hatab, M.S. Abbas, E.S.I. Gaber

Assessment of Threats to Vegetation Cover in Wadi El Rayan Protected Area, Western Desert, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 691-708
Wadi El Rayan is located in the African Sahara ecoregion of the Palearctic eco-zone, the world's largest hot desert. The total area of Wadi El Rayan is 1759km². The objective of the present study is to enrich the knowledge on the vegetation cover along the shores of Wadi El Rayan lakes and to identify the different threats, underlying causes and recommended solutions for the conservation of natural vegetation cover in Wadi El Rayan Protected Area (WRPA). Based on field surveys, we found that current pressures of human activities on natural vegetation include overgrazing, irresponsible tourism, land encroachment, water pollution, water over-use, fire, and habitat change and destruction. The reduction of water levels due to decreased water incoming is considered the main threat facing ecosystems and biodiversity in the lakes area. We found that the perimeter of the lower lake has decreased from 48.6km² in 2007 to 34.09km² in 2013 (a loss of 29.8 % of the total lake area), due to lake decreased water level. The most underlying causes of vegetation loss in the study area were found to be the lack of awareness, weak law enforcement, lack of suitable strategies, weak financial support and lack of stakeholders’ cooperation. Survey results show that vegetation cover in the area of the connecting channel and northeastern of the lower lake represents the highest impacted area by human pressures compared to other locations. Moreover, the role of WRPA is important in achieving good cooperation between governmental authorities, local community, and owners of different economic activities and in finding new ways to improve potential future cooperation with other stakeholders. We also provide some suggested activities for conserving vegetation cover in WRPA.

Keywords: Vegetation; Protected area; Wadi El Rayan; Threats; Conservation

K. Devi, J. Brahma, K. Shrivastava

Documentation of Four Hitherto Unreported Wild Edible Macro Fungi From Chirang District of Assam, North-East India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 709-718
Wild edible fungi are fleshy, edible fruit bodies of macro fungi which are literally consumed by humans for their nutritional and medicinal values since time immemorial. The present study aims to document ecological relationship and utilization pattern of wild edible fungi as an important source of food consumed by the Bodo tribes of Chirang district of Assam, North-east India. Owing to their rich biodiversity, a variety of wild edible macro fungi have been collected from forest fringe areas of Chirang reserve forest during rainy period. A total of 14 macro fungal species representing 12 genera from 10 families belonging to the order Agaricales (64.3%), Polyporales (21.4%), Auriculariales and Phallales (7.2%) were collected. The ecological relationship shows that maximum species were saprophytic in nature (10 no’s) along with some parasitic and symbiotic species. Overall four edible and medicinal species were recorded for the first time from Chirang district of Assam. Among them Termitomyces sp. (83.3%) showed maximum frequency whereas Dictyophora sp. and Ganoderma applanatum showed minimum frequency (16.6%). Maximum density was recorded for Macrolepiota procera (7.6) and minimum density was recorded for Ganoderma applanatum (0.16.).

Keywords: Wild edible fungi; ethnic tribes; biodiversity; Chirang district; Assam.

M. Naeem Awan, A.A. Karamanlidis, M. Siddique Awan, M. Ali Nawaz, M. Kabir

Preliminary Survey on Asiatic Black Bear In Kashmir Himalaya, Pakistan: Implications For Preservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 719-724
Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus thibetanus) are considered vulnerable throughout their range. In 2012 we conducted field surveys and questionnaires in the autonomous state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan to document the presence of bears and to evaluate human – bear conflicts. We recorded bears mainly in the northern and eastern part of the study area and documented wide-scale human – bear conflicts, which often resulted in the killing and a generally negative public perception of bears. We recommend additional studies to more accurately evaluate black bear status, biology and human-bear conflicts and the establishment of a protected area for bears in the region. On a national level, an Asiatic Black Bear Action Plan that will guide and coordinate research, management and conservation efforts is necessary to safeguard the future of the species in the country.

Keywords: Ursus thibetanus thibetanus; Crop damages; Endangered species; Himalayas; Livestock depredation; Management;


H.J. Al-Daraji, S.A. Al-Shemmary

Effect of Breed of Falcon on Semen Quality Traits

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 725-734
This study was conducted to determine the effect of falcon breed on semen quality traits. A total of 12 sexually matured males from three breeds of falcon (4 falcon males from each breed), which were Gyr, Saker and Peregrine, were used in this study. Birds were reared at typical falcon houses which were provided with all standard requirements for falconry. During the reproductive season (January – April) all males were trained on semen collection procedure by using special protocol to handle these birds. Semen samples were collected from all males on a fortnightly basis. Semen traits involved in this study were ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, mass motility, individual motility and percentage of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities. Result revealed that there are significant differences between three breeds of falcons in regards to the semen quality characteristics involved in this experiment. Peregrine falcon recorded the highest values (P≤ 0.05) with respect to ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, mass motility and individual motility followed by the results of Saker falcon, while Gyr falcon recorded the lowest values as concerning these traits. Results also indicated that Peregrine falcon surpasses (P≤ 0.05) Saker and Gyr falcons concerning the percentages of live spermatozoa, normal spermatozoa and normal acrosomes. However, there were no significant differences (P≥ 0.05) between Saker and Gyr falcons with relation to mass motility and percentages of dead spermotoza and acrosomal abnormalities. In conclusion, results of this study clearly indicated that there were significant differences between Gyr, Saker and Peregrine falcons regarding semen quality traits involved in this study and Peregrine falcon excelled the other two breeds of falcon in relation to these semen traits.

Keywords: Breed; Falcon; Semen quality.

D. Palit, A. Banerjee

Traditional Uses and Conservative Lifestyle of Lepcha Tribe Through Sustainable Bioresource Utilization – Case Studies from Darjeeling and North Sikkim, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 735-752
The major objective of the present communication was to document the traditional knowledge regarding ethnomedicinal uses of different plant species and conservative lifestyle of the Lepcha community in Darjeeling and some parts of North Sikkim. Extensive field surveys were undertaken between 2006 (groundwork) and 2010 (comprehensive) in selected study sites of North Sikkim and Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India. Information was gathered using semi-structured formats, interviews, and group discussions. Lepchas have profound knowledge about the plants and animals in their surroundings and are reputed for their age-long traditions in herbal medicine. The present work brings into light 34 plant species from the ethno botanical survey among Lepcha people in Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, which have multifarious uses. The major areas of their utilization include folk medicine. Present ethnobotanical survey among the Lepchas in North Sikkim, India brings into light 44 plant species that indigenous people use in medicinal purposes and the plants they use to make different domestic utensils and musical instruments. Based on our field investigations, it appears that habitat loss due to increasing anthropogenic activities has promoter greater damage towards bioresources diversity of the concerned study sites. Therefore, awareness and documentation of traditional knowledge is vitally important.

Keywords: Lepcha; traditional knowledge; North Sikkim; Heritage

M.M.A.B. Abdullah, N. Nordin, M.F.M. Tahir, A.A. Kadir, A.V. Sandu

Potential of Sludge Waste Utilization as Construction Materials Via Geopolymerization

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 753-758
The amount of sludge wastes produced from mining, domestic agriculture and industrial activities are about 60200 tons per year. The waste increase will have a significant impact on the energy conservation and also on the environment. Many attempts have been made to use sludge waste as construction materials such as brick; for example sewage sludge, water sludge, ceramic sludge and fly ash sludge and also advantages on the properties have been found but heavy metals leachibility will be the main concerned. Geopolymer has an ability to incapsulate heavy metals. Therefore, sludge waste is a potential alternative to convert into useful products as building materials that can alleviate the disposal problems. Therefore, in this study the potential of sludge waste to be utilize as construction materials has been studied.

Keywords: Sludge waste; Geopolymer; Construction materials

A.I. Petrisor

Assessment of the Long-Term Effects of Global Changes within the Romanian Natural Protected Areas

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 759-770
The global changes (climate changes, land cover and use changes, and alterations of energy flows) affect our global phenomena. These phenomena are even more important in the natural protected areas, which are pristine places designated to preserve our biodiversity within the limits of the carrying capacity of ecosystems. The present study used spatial data to look at the effects of global changes within the Romanian natural protected areas. The results indicate that high temperatures and low precipitations menace the protected areas from mountain areas and to a lesser extent those in the wetlands. The transitional dynamics of land cover and use changes do not differ from the national ones and consist of antagonistic phenomena affecting forests (deforestation and reforestation), and, to a lesser extent, agriculture (abandonment and development), waters and wetlands (floods and draughts), and man-dominated systems (urbanization). The findings suggest that unplanned development incurs environmental costs.

Keywords: Conservation; Climate change; Land cover and use; Agriculture; Wetlands; Deforestation; Reforestation; CORINE.

I.O.O. Osunsina

Illegal Resources Extraction and Preponderance Distance of Villages: A Case Study of Four Nigerian National Parks

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 771-782
This study was conducted in four Nigerian National Parks namely: Cross River (CRNP), Gashaka Gumti (GGNP), Kainji Lake (KLNP) and Old Oyo (OONP) National Parks to assess the distance of Support Zone Villages and their farmland to the Parks boundaries and evaluate the problems of illegal resources extraction. Primary data were collected from 109 local communities in support zone of four Nigerian National Park. The study areas’ selection was through multi-stage random sampling. Data obtained were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and Spearman’s rho correlation. The study showed that 34.86% of the respondents have their Villages and farmlands far from the Parkland, 30.02% shares boundary with the park and 22.94% of the villages were located inside the Parkland, while 12.18% indicated that their villages and farmlands were not far from the Park. The result of the Spearman’s rho correlation indicated that there was significant relationship between illegal activities and distance of the village from the Park boundary (r =0.047, p 0.01 ). The study showed that the villagers around the parks do not observe the buffer zone limit and there is Illegal resources extraction. There is need to properly delineate the Parks boundary and ensure that buffer zones are rightly observed.

Keywords: Preponderance distances; Illegal activities; National Park; Resources Extraction

Publication date: 15.09.2016

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