International Journal of Conservation Science

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Volume 9, Issue 1, 2018

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Research articles

R. Bugini, C. Corti, L. Folli, L. Rampazzi

The Use of Mortar to Imitate White Marble and Other Stones

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 3-12

The reproduction of natural stone using different kinds of mortars has always been an important character of the architecture of Lombardy (Italy). Many examples of artificial stone, made of a coating of lime mortar on stone or brick structures, are available from Roman times. At the turn of the 20th century, a new kind of material, based on Portland cement and crushed stone, made possible a quite perfect reproduction of different kinds of stone and the making of complicated decorative elements. The raw materials employed to reproduce white marble and other stones used in Lombard architecture were investigated starting from the ‘Fontana di Camerlata’ (Como, 1936–62).

Keywords: Mortar; Artificial stone; Cast stone; Marble; Granite; Calcarenite

E.A. Amin

Conservation of a Gauze Textile from the Tulunid Period in Egyptian Textile Museum, Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 13-24
The article is about the documentation and conservation of an Islamic textile piece from the Tulunid period. The object was made of gauze textile. The main challenges of previous conservation at the excavation site where the poor condition of the object that the piece was glued on a free acid paper and it caused dryness of the fibers. SEM microscopy was used in the identification of textile fibers; x-ray analysis was performed to identify mordant, FTIR analysis to identify dyes in dyed samples. The main conservation treatments removed the piece far from acid free paper, surface cleaning and supporting the fabrics of the object on blue linen support fabrics using stitches.

Keywords: Gauze; Stitches; Conservation; Treatments; Supporting

T. Selvaraj, R. Ramadoss

Analysis and Characterisation of Third Century Ancient Mortars at Subramanyaswamy Temple Rediscovered After the 2004 Tsunami Near Mamallapuram Shore, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 25-38
A characterization study on lime mortar samples from the Subramanya Swamy temple, Saluvankuppam, rediscovered after the 2004 tsunami, was carried out to understand the raw materials used and the application technology. The binder is air lime with binder to aggregate ratio of 2:3. Calcitic crushed sea shells along with siliceous river sand were used. The particles are poorly graded with large amount of nano-particles in the form of silt and clay minerals. The major peaks identified in XRD are Calcite, Quartz and Kaolinite. The presence of Geothite and Gibbsite in the mortar is due to chemical reaction between the mortar and the laterite bricks. The mortar is not affected by salt crystallization which is evident from the low sodium chloride content of 0.32%. The organic test results indicated the presence of carbohydrates and protein that supports the traditional practice of adding herbs into mortars. TGA point out structurally bound water of 1.5% and carbon dioxide 28.88%. The SEM images show the presence of microbial colonies in the mortars. EDX indicates the complete formation of Calcite.

Keywords: Archaeological site; Coastal ancient temple; Old lime mortar; XRD; SEM-EDX; TGA-DTA

A. Abdrabou, M. Abdallah, I.A. Shaheen, H.M. Kamal

Investigation of an Ancient Egyptian Polychrome Wooden Statuette by Imaging and Spectroscopy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 39-54
This paper describes the combined use of imaging and spectroscopic techniques performed on a polychrome wooden statuette of the god Ptah –Sokr- Osiris from 26th dynasty in ancient Egypt, with the aim of identifying the painted materials layered on wood surface and emphasizing the surface texture of the painted preparation layers. The identification of wood was also included in the study. The wood sample was identified by observing the thin sections with optical transmission light microscope; the painted materials layered on the wood surface were analyzed by both imaging and spectroscopic techniques including optical microscopy (OM), reflectance transformation imaging (RTI), technical photography [visible, visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL), ultraviolet reflectance (UVR), infrared (IR), visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL), infrared false color (IRFC)] ,dino-lite USB microscope (UVlIR), handheld X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The microscopic observation of wood thin sections allows identifying it as a native Egyptian Sycamore fig (Ficus sycomorus). The preparation layer was proved to be a mixture of calcite and quartz. The chromatic palette used in the statuette was identified as hematite, Egyptian blue, arsenic sulphides, possibly malachite and carbon from charred animal origin. The application of RTI provided new and valuable information about surface irregularities of the painted layers and marks relating to surface preparation that are imperceptible to the naked eye or through other inspection techniques. Dino-Lite USB digital microscope (UV/ IR) has proven to be a simple and a cost-effective tool for recognizing the spatial distribution of the single crystals of the pigments.

Keywords: Egyptian polychrome statuette; Reflectance transformation imaging; Technical photography; XRF; Wood identification.

A. Elyamani, M.S. El-Rashidy, M. Abdel-Hafez, H. Gad El-Rab

A Contribution to the Conservation of 20th Century Architectural Heritage in Khedival Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 55-70
Cairo Down-Town is known as Khedival Cairo. It is famous for its rich architectural heritage buildings designed by many European architects during the 19th and the 20th c. Many of these buildings have deteriorated due to misuse and lack of maintenance. In this paper, the survival of a historic balcony of one of these buildings (dating back to 1911) due to extensive intervention works is presented. The leaked water from air-conditioning resulted in corrosion of the steel beams carrying the balcony. Subsequently, the decorative units at the balcony bottom were detached and started to fall down. An intervention was carried out to allow the balcony to survive. The adequacy of the intervention was ensured by numerical analysis and in-situ static loading test. It was found that the adopted intervention represented a good example that could be applied to many other similar balconies widely found in Khedival Cairo.

Keywords: Khedival Cairo; Architectural heritage; Deterioration; Intervention; Corrosion; Concrete; Static loading test; Model updating; Numerical analysis.

M. Ghorbani, K. Samanian, M. Afsharpuor

Effect of Physical Properties of Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibers Bio-Composite as a Coating on the Paper Works

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 71-80
The use of material with proper physical characteristics is considered a main criterion for treatment of paper works. In this study, Bacterial Cellulose Nanofiber (BCN) has been used in the form of nanocomposite into Hydroxypropyl Cellulose (Klucel-G), in order to evaluation of its physical characteristics. Klucel-G polymer is often used a common material for treatment of paper works. After preparing this Bio-Nanocomposite by using hydrosoluble casting method, were coated on paper samples by coater machine and film samples were also prepared. Paper samples color change behavior was evaluated by Reflective Spectrophotometry test (UV-Vis) and also Thermal behavior (Tg temperature) from nanocomposite dried films was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry technique (DSC). The results of this study showed that by adding this Nano-fiber improved Tg thermal behavior in aging conditions. As a result, the existence of this Nano-additive, as compared with pure Klucel-G, resulted in resistance against decrease of glass temperature of Klucel-G, and hence its permanence and durability. The results of Calorimetry also showed that color change behavior of paper samples was improved, because of the presence of this Nanofiber.

Keywords: Paper work; Protection; Cellulose nanofiber; Klucel; Coating; Physical characteristic

T. Palomar, B. Ramírez Barat, E. Cano

Evaluation of Cleaning Treatments For Tarnished Silver: The Conservator´s Perspective

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 81-90

Several treatments appear in the bibliography to clean the tarnished silver. However, the information about the aspect and efficiency of the cleanings is spread or not completely detailed in these works. With this purpose, a worldwide survey has been carried out to identify of the most common treatments for cleaning tarnished silver and the personal experience of professionals about the frequency of use, the cleaning efficiency, the surface appearance, the application speed, the difficulty and the applicability. This paper contains the results of this survey.

Keywords: Silver; Silver Sulfide; Tarnishing; Cleaning treatments; Conservation

M. Abdallah, A. Abdrabou

Tutankhamen’s Small Shrines (Naoses): Technology of Woodworking and Identification of Wood Species

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 91-104
The focus of this paper is to reveal unknown features and to obtain still more information on technology of wood working used on the black shrine-shaped boxes from Tutankhamen collection. Moreover, the authors were significantly interested in identification of the wood species and shed lit on the reflection of The sudden death of the young king, the value of wood and its relative scarcity, not only in ingenious shrines construction methods and the incorporation of many fragments of timber, but also in the presence numerous pieces that show clear evidence of reuse from earlier objects. Patching, even for the royal wood workings, with another piece of wood secured by dowels and white pastes was one option and knots holes were sometimes drilled out and filled with plugs. The botanical species of the wood samples were identified by observing the thin sections under an optical transmission light microscope; technology of wood working were examined by visible imaging and raking light along with 3D software. The results revealed that cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) and sycamore fig (Ficus sycomorus) had been used for making the shrines’ boards and sleds while tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.), and Sidder (nabk) (Zizyphus spina Christi) used for making wooden dowels. Wooden pegs used to collect the shrine boards, roof and cornice together while the wooden joint of through mortise and tenon was used to collect the body of the shrine to the sled. The raking light was effective in revealing the tools marks.

Keywords: Tutankhamen; Wood identification; Cedrus libani; Ficus sycomorus; Raking light; Patching.

G. Papini, L. Borgioli, D. De Luca, M.O. Gui, F. Modugno

Evaluation of the Effects of Cyclododecane on Oil Paintings

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 105-116
The solubility of oil paint components during the application of cyclododecane in solvent mixtures was evaluated in order to predict if the application of cyclododecane during restoration may significantly alter the chemical state of the paint layer in oil paintings. The chemical affinity between some of the oil binder components and non-polar cyclododecane could potentially lead to interactions or leaching during the application. In order to investigate these effects a set of samples taken from oil paintings from the early 1900s and 2008, were treated with cyclododecane in a solution, melted, and sprayed as aerosol. The samples were also submitted to a comparative extractive treatment with cyclododecane and organic solvents of different polarities. After the treatments, the extracted components were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which provided detailed molecular information on the composition of the extracts, together with a quantitative profile of fatty acids in extracted triglycerides, after saponification and derivatisation. The results show that applications of cyclododecane both as a spray and in a saturated solution in a hydrocarbon solvent determine the extraction of a low amount of lipids from the paint. On the other hand, when cyclododecane is applied in the melted form, there is an extraction of lipid components of the paint into the treatment solution.

Keywords: Oil paintings; Cyclododecane; Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry; Fatty acids; Organic solvents.

T.A. Salah

Investigation and Restoration of a 17th Century AD Manuscript At Al-Azhar Library In Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 117-126
This case study manuscript "Suluk alttariqat alssufia", which is kept at the Al-azhar Library in Cairo is documented and treated. The manuscript was made from cotton fibers that may have been used the induction of paper. It’s exposure to various deteriorating factors, including neglect and inappropriate exhibition, caused a lot of damage. The unavailability of appropriate conditions at the library, including relative humidity, temperature, light and unsealed storage cases, lead to gathering of air dust particles and aerosols inside the storage rooms. All these factors led to severe damage which resulted in the manifestation of dust and fungi stains formed on the paper manuscript. This research offers a treatment and restoration plan and illustrates the actual scientific procedures that were followed during the restoration and treatment of the manuscript, starting from the archaeological documentation, the analysis and scientific inspection (SEM-EDX, FTIR-ATR) which were carried out to identify the components, and the actual stages of restoration and conservation.

Keywords: Manuscript; Degradation and deterioration effects; Fungal attack; Preservation and restoration; Analysis methods by FTIR and SEM-EDXS, Identification of fungi

R.R.A. Hassan, M.F. Ali, A.G.A. Fahmy

Use of SEM, FTIR and Amino Acid Analysis Methods to Assess the Damage of Some Historical Leather Bindings From XIXth Century, Stored in National Archive, Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 127-136
The current study aims to assess the damage of some historical leathers dating from 1806, 1848, 1880, and, respectively, 1887 A.D. Measurement of pH, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), SEM and amino-acid composition study were undertaken, to improve our understanding of damage contained in leather. Several structural changes were observed in spectra of deteriorated leather. SEM data, however, show that corium layer are less susceptible to factors deterioration than are grain layer. The study proves that deterioration of leather results from both oxidation and hydrolysis.

Keywords: Collagen; Leather book binding; SEM; Amino acid; Deterioration; Damage

M.F. Ali, A.E. Ali

Study of the Manufacturing Technique and Chemical Characterization of an Ethiopian Icon in the Coptic Museum in Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 137-150
Ethiopian icons played an important role in Ethiopian arts in the period between mid-fifteenth centuries and the twentieth century. The religious ties between Egypt and Abyssinia witnessed a prosperous phase in the period after the introduction of Christianity in the fourth century AD. Several previous studies have dealt with Ethiopian icons in terms of their artistic and pictorial side; however, there are no similar studies in Egypt discussing their manufacturing techniques, deterioration, and proper treatment and conservation methods. Therefore, this study aims to study the manufacturing technique of an anonymous Ethiopian icon (registration number 4881) kept in the storagerooms of the Coptic Museum in Cairo. This icon depicts St. George riding his horse and handling in his hand spears in the form of an X. Its dimension 123.5 cm long, 113.4 cm wide . The analytical techniques utilized in this study were optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopes (FTIR). The results indicated that the icon was done on a cotton canvas, and the identified pigments are the blue of lapislazuli, yellow of lead chromate, white of anhydrite and black of carbon black from bones. The ground layer is made of anhydrite (calcium sulphate).

Keywords: Ethiopian; Icons; Coptic; Canvas; Painting; Pigments; Binder

B. Ratoi, V. Pelin, I. Sandu, M. Branzila, I.G. Sandu

Hidden Message In Stone Masonry Of Galata Monastery - Iasi City, Romania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 151-164
Galata Church is one of the oldest architectural monuments in Iași, Romania, was being built predominantly from geological period of Cenozoic (Sarmatian) calcareous rocks, locally known as the Repedea Limestone and Șcheia Sandstone. These rocks are composed of different facies and microfacies types and were deposited on a beach environment. This paper presents a number of data regarding the present status of wall of enclosure conservation based on petrographic and sedimentological microscopic analysis that were correlated with microscopic analysis of lithic materials from the current open pits from Iași area from where the stone used was extracted.

Keywords: Galata Monastery; Enclosure walls; Repedea oolite; Sedimentary facies; Sarmatian open pits

D. Meena, S. Bhatnagar, A. Singh

A Critical Review on Anogeissus Pendula: An Important Species of Arid Zone

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 165-172
Anogeissus pendula is a multipurpose tree species with immense ethno-ecological importance. The tree has ecological significance for the Aravallis and other hilly areas of the country. The tree of Anogeissus pendula is socially acceptable and economically viable to the farming community. It is valued for timber and regarded as the third toughest timber in the world. Also used as a source of fuel wood, fodder and gum. However, Anogeissus pendula has some constraint also such as seed germination capacity and seedling growth is very slow. Due to its very slow growing nature it forms bushy appearance which reduces the value of the timber. Alternatively, attempts have been made to propagate this tree through in vitro approaches. In this communication, we emphasize the research progress made with respect to Anogeissus pendula on various aspects, and suggest some future directions of research.

Keywords: Anogeissus pendula; Ethno-ecological context; Conservation status; Timber species.

U.S. Abubakar, B.I. Khalifa, F. Abdu, M. Sanusi, T.A. Gawuna, J.G. Adamu, S.S. Rogo

Threatened Medicinal Plants of Kano Flora and the Need for Urgent Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 173-178
The sustainable utilization and conservation of medicinal plants could be best achieved by involving the traditional practitioners. Thus, this study was aimed at identifying medicinal plant species that have become threatened and are at risk of becoming endangered for urgent conservation action. Informal interviews were used to collect data from traditional medical practitioners in Kano State, Nigeria. The data collected included the local names of the threatened medicinal plants, possible causes of the threat and efforts made by the respondents to conserve the plants. Findings from the study showed that thirty one (31) plant species belonging to nineteen (19) families were said to be threatened. Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Albizia chevalieri, Aristolochia albida, Balsamodendron africanum, Burkea africana, Ceiba pentandra, Cissus quandrangularis, Ficus sycomorus, Kigelia africana, Lannea microcarpa, Terminalia avicennoides, Mitragyna inermis, Prosopis africana and Securidaca longipedunculata were the most frequently mentioned plant species. The respondents attributed this loss to urbanization, deforestation, expansion of agricultural activities and unsustainable collection of the plants. Therefore, there is need by all stakeholders to initiate conservation programs to save these plants from becoming endangered.

Keywords: Conservation; Traditional practitioners; Medicinal plants; Endangered plants.

T. Bashir, T. Bhattacharya, K. Poudyal, S. Sathyakumar

Preliminary Observations on the Cryptic Fauna of Sikkim Trans-Himalaya, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 179-184
The Sikkim Trans-Himalaya remains one of the most threatened and least explored ecosystems in India in spite of its rich ecological and socio-cultural importance. We therefore aimed at conducting a baseline survey of its faunal diversity and the prevailing threats using sign surveys and camera trapping in the Lhonak catchment of North Sikkim during the spring of 2012. We confirmed the presence of Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) from the catchment through camera trap photos alongwith the records of seven other wild animal species. The carnivores in the area seemed to be under threat due to retaliatory killings by local herders in response to livestock depredation. Besides this, other potential threats to the biodiversity and the habitat included overstocking, feral dogs, infrastructure development and presence of defense forces in the area. We therefore propose extensive surveys and long-term monitoring exercises that could aid in resolving these issues and benefit towards efficient conservation and management of this unique Trans-Himalayan landscape of Sikkim.

Keywords: Trans-Himalaya; Sikkim; Camera trapping; Tibetan wolf; Livestock depredation

O.V. Oyerinde, J.A. Olusola, A.A. Adebo

Variation in Morphometric Traits of Trees, Pods and Seeds of Parkia Biglobosa (jacq) g. in Southwestern, Nigeria

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 185-192
Tropical forests contain many important indigenous tree species that are edible and of socio-economically. The morphological traits of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) G pods and seeds from three different States in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Tree growth measurements (height, crown diameter and diameter at breast height) were made on 10 trees of Parkia biglobosa selected from two villages from a Local Government in three States (Ekiti, Ondo and Osun), resulting into 60 trees for the study were sampled and analyzed. The pods were measured for morphological parameters (pod number, pod weight, pod length, pod breadth, and number of seeds). Means for each parameter were computed and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to determine if there were significant differences between States. The result of tree growth parameters differs from one State to another. It reveals that height ranges from 3.3- 13m (Osun), 2.7-13.5m (Ekiti) and 5.3-9.5m (Ondo State). Crown diameter shows that the tree in Osun varies between 4-18m, 7.5-20.2m, and 6- 23.2m for Ekiti and Ondo. Tree mean dbh varies from one state to the others, ranges between 9.1-18.9cm (Osun); 11.8-20.8cm (Ekiti) and between 10.7cm and 13.4cm (Ondo State) respectively. There were significant variations in morphological traits from one State to the other. Mean pod number varied from 31- 40.6, with trees from Ondo show higher number than Ekiti and Osun States. The morphological values were found to be higher in Ondo State than those recorded in Ekiti and Osun States respectively. The differences between States are a reflection of the different agro-climatic and soil conditions of Southwestern States. These morphological differences expressed will be very useful for promoting domestication and commercialization of Parkia biglobosa in Nigeria.

Keywords: Growth parameters; Variation; Morphology; Parkia biglobosa; Southwestern Nigeria.

P. Dendup, Namgay, C. Lham

Winter Distribution and Poaching of Musk Deer, Moschus Chrysogaster and Moschus Leucogaster in Jigme Dorji National Park, Bhutan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 193-198
Jigme Dorji National Park is home to 2 species of musk deer: Alpine (Moschus chrysogaster) and Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster). In summer months, they inhabit alpine areas and in winter, they are found in fir (Abies densa) forest. They are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3171 masl to 4327 masl in winter. The study on musk deer distribution and poaching was carried out in all the potential musk deer habitats under 6 range offices in the month of October to December 2016. A total of 400 snares were removed following 84 days of active patrol by the park staff. One male musk deer was released into the wild which was caught in the snares set around Chutey Goempa forest. Traditional snaring method (leg and neck snares) with barricade were adopted by the poachers. Nylon ropes were the primary material used as snares. During the entire patrol period, two poachers were apprehended under Lingzhi Range, while attempting to set snares for musk deer. They were fined as per the provisions set under Forest Act, 1995. Annual anti-poaching activities should be carried out and anthropogenic activity should be strictly monitored to protect this endangered species.

Keywords: Agriculture; Income; Musk deer; Patrolling; Poaching; Protected areas; Snares;

Publication date: 15.03.2018

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